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美军枪械专家横向评测中的【中国5.8MM新枪族】[强烈推荐]

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发表于 2004-06-05 02:12 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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<P>  原作:David Fortier

  作为冷战时代成长起来的一代,我们很难想象俄国人已经不是我们的最大敌人了,随着时光流逝,有关原苏联的记忆已经慢慢淡逝了。现在俄罗斯成了我们的朋友,作为一个轻武器大国,俄罗斯拥有才华横溢的设计师和数十年积累的丰富经验,在了解了大量原苏联/俄罗斯轻武器发展的状况的同时,我们必须关注另一个国家???中国。由于现在公开的中国轻武器资料信息实在是太少了,所以我决定去为大家揭开这个神秘国家轻武器研究的面纱。

  中国早在50年代末就全面开始了国产轻武器的研制工作,先后研制出中国的第一代(63式和74式)以及第二代(81式和87式)系列步枪。特别是在过去20年间,由于开始开放,中国在轻武器研究领域取得了惊人的进步,这段爆发期的顶点就是国产5.8×42毫米系列武器的诞生。中国宣称新的5.8毫米小口径武器及弹药的性能超过了北约标准5.56×45毫米 SS109系列和5.45×39毫米 7N6系列。

  我们现在回溯到近半个世纪前的1958年,中国开始大规模的轻武器自行研制工作。当时的中国拥有使用苏式和日制轻武器作战的丰富经验,特别是苏制7.62×25毫米和7.53毫米和日本的6.5毫米。在研究中,中国非常推崇苏联在二战之后开始发展的7.62×39mm M43弹药及其武器,特别是卡拉什尼科夫的设计和卡式武器的高可靠性。但是中国人显然对于AK47的射击精度和人机功能不很感冒,所以在借鉴AK的设计的基础上他们开始研制63式步枪(原作者按:西方经常错误地称其为68式)和74式班用机枪,这是中国第一代自行研制的轻武器族系。但是随后M16步枪的服役和越南战争中的经验教训让中国人知道63式的设计思想已经完全落后了。

  经过总结之后,中国人重新开始研制更符合现代战争环境的新一代轻武器,后来的成果就是81式步枪。81式的设计目标是一种现代突击步枪,同时要拥有卡拉什尼科夫的高度可靠性和更好的射击精度以及人机功能。成品的81式突击步枪外观平平,但是可靠耐用。对比苏制AK系列,81式还有一些创新性的设计,包括开式弹鼓,膛口有消噪、止焰和制退防跳功能的榴弹发射器,拇指触手即到的保险/射击模式转换钮,以及可调整的导气式回转闭锁等等。总体上81式的研制是很成功的。

  尽管中国人对于新的7.62×38毫米的81式步枪很满意,也并不认同M16的可靠性和火力持续性,但是M16步枪在越战中的出现的和表现提醒了中国人开始关注小口径轻武器具有的独特优势和广阔前景。借鉴M16在越战中的实战经验,中国人并没有简单的仿制或者抄袭,而是在此基础上开始研究,寻求一种符合中国军队需求的小口径武器方案,这个设计既要保证在中距(400米)上的性能,又要兼顾长距离的机枪火力支援/压制任务(1000米)。中国人这次的思想没有固定在已有的口径标准之上,而是去寻求一种最符合要求最理想的新口径设计。这种理想的通用弹药也是世界轻武器研究一直追求的目标,但是没有任何最后成型的方案。(编者按:其他国家对于这个问题目前还是采取中距步兵武器小口径,远距压制中口径,例如北约标准的5.56和7.62的搭配,保证最佳火力搭配但是也增加了后勤的压力)。</P>
<P>  经过全面的研究,中国人确认这个理想的‘通用口径’应该是5.8毫米、6毫米和6.2毫米,所以之后开始按照这些方案制造样品并进行了大规模的对比测试,这个大规模试验类似我们的SAW工程中从5.56到7.62毫米1000种弹药组合的对比测试(编者注:Squad Automatic Weapon――-SAW project,美国陆军新一代的班用自动武器方案),我们最后的结果是6×45毫米弹药,但是由于后勤问题没有被采用。由此看来,中美两国在这方面的研究可谓异途同归。
  经过这样的测试,中国人确定5.8毫米是最理想、最符合要求的口径方案,新的5.8×42mm口径诞生了。新系列的弹药分为三种:标准的突击步枪子弹,增重的机枪用子弹和特殊设计的狙击步枪专用弹药。

  标准的5.8×42毫米步枪子弹由一个64格令(编者注:格令美国惯用体系的重量单位,一常衡单位等于0.002285盎斯=0.065克)的FMJBT(编者注:Full Metal Jacket Boat Tail,全金属尾锥)弹头和一个22.6格令的铅芯组成,伯丹底火(Berdan primer),弹壳为镀层钢材料(编者注:一种说法为中国缺铜,所以选择钢材料,所以为了退壳顺畅弹体锥度大于国外同类弹药,直接造成弹体长度增加,弹匣尺寸和弯度随之增加),弹体整体长度58毫米,弹壳长度42.2毫米,弹头长度24.2毫米。整个弹体类似俄罗斯5.45×39和北约5.56×45的组合体,但是更加紧凑,便于弹药装填和退壳。类似与5.45×39毫米弹药,弹体密度强度也很理想。95式步枪枪管长度为18.2英寸,枪口初速达到3050英尺/秒。而95式班用机枪的枪管长度达到21.9英寸,枪口初速则提高到3182英尺/秒。我手里的弹药样品由解放军71厂加工,1996年出厂。

  虽然中国人已经开发出他们认为理想的5.8毫米弹药和武器,但是仍然有一个问题需要解决。众所周知,自从二战开始,中国军队曾大量使用缴获的日制6.5毫米小口径武器,通过总结大量的实战经验,中国人对于这些小口径武器的杀伤效力并不满意,特别是在长距离方面。所以小口径武器,特别是小口径机枪对他们的吸引力并不大。

  为了说服军方接受新一代的小口径武器,解放军总装备部向部队提供了一些5.8毫米的过渡型号步枪试用。这批枪械根据原有的81式7.62毫米突击步枪改进设计而来,后来被冠名为87式步枪。军方接收这批步枪之后立即展开大规模的对比试用试验,试验中5.8毫米武器的表现全面超越原有的7.62×39系列。这些真材实料的试验结果令中国军方最终下决心接受5.8毫米为解放军下一代小口径轻武器的首选。</P>
<P>  在80年代末这次对比测试大获成功之后,中国人开始集中精力开发使用5.8毫米弹药的小口径武器。与以往不同,这次开发的不再是单一品种的任何枪械,而是一个5.8毫米口径的通用枪族。这个系列武器包括95式步枪,95式班用机枪以及88式狙击步枪,令人惊奇的是中国人还开发了5.8毫米的88式重机枪。新枪族的设计符合了现代轻武器发展的潮流,除了重机枪外全部采用了无托结构设计(编者注:bullpup,英文原意‘牛犊’,其实指‘弹匣后置’也就是无托式设计,台湾很生硬地翻译成‘犊牛式结构’)。

  传闻中国人在开发95式步枪的过程中大量参考了SVD德拉甘诺夫狙击步枪的设计。例如95式的三凸耳旋转枪栓,枪栓连动框以及可调的导气短冲程回转闭锁等等都可以看到SVD的影子。新枪族大量使用高强度铝合金和符合材料,并且改善了人机功能。枪管使用了冷铸技术大大提高了射击精度。从人体的角度,新设计还重点强调和考虑了物理方面的因素:

  1. 枪体的整体重力轴心与枪管的重力轴线保持最短距离;
  2. 整个枪栓组件的重力轴心和闭气锁的重力轴线保持最短距离;
  3. 枪管的重力轴心和瓦斯导管的重力轴线保持最短距离;
  4. 枪栓连动座的重力轴心与全枪的重力轴心保持最短距离。

  用95式设计者自己的话来形容,这样的设计是‘紧凑设计发挥组合式的整体效应,时刻保持枪体的平衡和稳定性,保证枪栓运行顺畅,整体上降低了全枪的重量,增加射击精确性,并且提高了武器可靠性’。特别要注意的是他们还强调了新枪族的可靠性不低于AK系列。

  新枪族还有系列的附件可供选择,包括:
  1. 光学观瞄以及快速辅助观瞄装置;
  2. 最新的星光夜视观瞄以及辅助观瞄装置;
  3. 快速拆装的35毫米榴弹发射装置;
  4. 多功能枪刺,可以用作刺刀、匕首、割线器以及开罐头器等。

  虽然我个人对于无托结构没有太多研究,但是95式步枪显然体现了良好的人体工程学设计。枪体长度仅有29.3英寸,重量也只有7.1磅(编者注:95式是目前世界上已服役步枪中最轻和最短的一种)。从后半部份看,枪体装有类似M16的携带手柄,这个手柄集机械观瞄装置一体,还装有光学瞄准具底座;而从前半部分看,则让我想起AK系列的某个变种。枪机拉柄设置类似AR10步枪,位于携带手柄之下。标准弹匣为30发装的工程塑料材质。95式步枪的有效射程超过400米。需要注意的是,虽然从外观上看很前卫,实际上95式还是非常传统的步枪。从结构功能上讲95式和传统的步枪没有明显的区别,甚至相比俄罗斯的AN94步枪(1994年研制成功,未来将替代AK74M),95式也更加传统。尽管如此,俄罗斯人还是要衷心感谢中国人的,很有趣,实际上AN94的研制一直在借鉴中国95式系列枪族的经验,汲取精华并改进不足。</P>
<P>  除了步枪外,95式班用机枪是一种火力支援武器。这种轻机枪使用同步枪一样的枪栓和枪机结构、完全一致的上下机匣以及供弹装置。由于主要任务是火力支援和压制,机枪相比步枪采用了更长更重的枪管,以及安装了两脚支架。为了保障火力的持续性,95式机枪可以使用75发装的弹鼓,当然也可以通用标准的30发弹匣。从我平时试射的经验讲,可能是由于弹鼓内部空间设计不够紧凑造成弹药运动撞击过大,中国弹鼓的噪音非常大。此外令人难以致信的是95式机枪的重量仅仅有8.7磅!甚至比一些冲锋枪还轻,就算是对比英国的SA系列轻机枪和我们的M249 SAW,95式也是最轻的。95式轻机枪的有效射程大于600米。

  88式狙击步枪采用25.1英寸的机锻枪管,相对与95式,携带手柄被一具3至9倍的光学瞄准具取代,瞄准具采用十字准心加提前量估算标记。作为辅助应急,还保留了可折放的机械式瞄准装置。另外88式狙击步枪还装备有一体式两脚支架,运动中可以将支架与护木反向折放与枪管平行(编者注:原作者这里可能犯了个小错误,88式的支架非integral整体式,而是可拆卸的)。供弹装置则可以选择20发或者30发弹匣(编者注:可能又一个小错误,88式标准供弹弹匣为10发装)。在与85式7.62×54毫米狙击步枪(SVD的仿制品)的对比测试中,88式在远距离上更加精确,反应速度更快,后坐力更小,供弹量更大,但是重量上要轻很多,更加方便携带和运动。其实与其说是真正意义上的狙击步枪,不如称其为专门设计的高精度步枪,在现代战场条件下,半自动的88式性能要远优于其他手动式的高精度步枪,也可以完成一些特殊性质的任务。88式在使用专用狙击弹药的情况下有效射程大于800米。

  中国5.8枪族的最新成员是QJY88式重机枪。5.8毫米重机枪项目研制始于1989年,试验环境从天寒地冻的北国到酷热的沙漠地带,经受了严寒,酷暑和风沙的考验,1999年7月QJY88式重机枪正式定型投产。QJY88的供弹装置为200发的供弹布带,供弹口内装备有3个滚轴,供弹勾上还有一个滚轴,最大程度地降低了供弹带的运行摩擦,避免卡弹,提高了可靠性。QJY88除了装配三角支架作为典型的重机枪使用外,还可以换装两脚支架充当轻机枪的角色。标准的三脚支架底座有一个制退装置,可以有效提高设计精确度以及方便对空射击。另外QJY88式的枪管内设计有专门的特殊膛线以及镀有0.18到0.28毫米厚度的铬涂层,完全可以抵御高温的侵蚀,这些措施有效地增加了枪管的结构寿命。中国人宣称QJY88式重机枪使用简便,可靠性高,特别是容易携带(整枪带三角支架的重量只有26磅),有效射程远并且精确度高。使用专用的5.8加重机枪弹药,QJY88式的有效射程超过1000米。</P>
<P>  听起来不错吧?我知道你现在要问什么问题了:到底中国的5.8×42毫米武器对比我们的5.56×45和俄罗斯的5.45×39哪个好?好在哪里?我不会打哑谜的,最近我有幸接触到一些解放军的弹道测试资料(不要问我怎么得到的)。测试使用了5.45×39毫米的AK74步枪,使用标准的7N6弹药;5.56×45毫米的FNC步枪,使用SS109和P112 AP弹药;以及95式步枪,使用中国的5.8×42毫米弹药。试验项目包括600米距离上的精确性,800米距离弹头的飞行时间,640米和700米距离上对北约标准3.5毫米加强钢板的穿透效应,310米距离上对10毫米加强钢板的穿透效应,最后还有90米距离上对麻醉的家畜静止射击的杀伤性能测试。所有这些测试过程和结果被详细记录并进行图标对比。在对比中我自己加入了美国海军陆战队康迪哥基地武器研究部门在80年代所做的3.5钢板贯穿试验数据。

  中国的试验结果表明5.8×42毫米弹药在射程和穿透力对比上丝毫不输于M43 7.62×39弹药。所以可以得出结论:中距离上,现代小口径武器在不增加弹体重量和后坐力的前提下绝对可以保障理想的性能。同时5.56×45弹药在600米距离上的性能也全面超越了老式的7.62×51和中国现役的7.62×39(阿富汗的恐怖分子也使用该种型号)。而他们5.8×42的设计初衷就是要超越5.56×45 SS109,包括在远距离上的性能。从95式步枪上光学瞄准具底座作为标准配置来看,显然中国人希望改进他们轻武器的有效射程。另外虽然我们目前没有任何88式狙击步枪的性能资料,但是测试中在1000米以上超越7.62×54毫米SVD的性能基本上可以解答大家的疑问了。在俄军中SVD被昵称为‘Oar’(编者注:英文原意为‘船桨’),由于性能优良而受到部队的喜爱。

  在钢板穿透测试中,5.8的表现轻易超出了5.45 7N6和5.56 SS109,和5.56 P112 AP打了个平手,但是5.8的剩余动能要高于P112。需要注意的是5.45 7N6弹药采用的是更轻的钢芯,公平起见,应该使用新型的7N10高穿透力弹药来做对比。虽然5.8弹药有着更高的剩余动能和速度以及小口径弹头特有的高穿透力,但是由于重量较轻,小口径弹药在远距离上下坠和杀伤力减退的情况比较普遍。这样的小口径弹头可以轻易穿透人体,但是杀伤力不大。这种情况最早可以回溯到一战时的意大利战场,曾经有过士兵被6.5毫米子弹击穿肺部后在一个星期之内就伤愈的情况出现。最近的例子是美军士兵在索马里和阿富汗被M885/SS109子弹击伤也未造成致命伤害。

  活体射击测试的结果充分地体现了小口径弹药的这个特性。试验表明,5.45 7N6弹药的杀伤能力比5.56 SS109和5.8×42都要好。当然这个测试的距离非常近,只有90米。虽然中国人肯定了5.45 7N6弹药在近距离上的出色杀伤能力,但是试验结果也说明由于使用52格令的轻重弹头,5.45 7N6在超过600米射程时精度、穿透力以及杀伤力大幅度下降。中国人的报告同时指出5.45×39弹药的加工简便,成本角度讲非常经济。报告还表明SS109在600米距离以上仍能保持一定的威力,而劣势在于高膛压,以及使用铜质弹壳所以价格较高。


  虽然5.8弹药在穿透力方面超过5.56 SS109,但是在精确度方面则略逊一畴。新的5.8毫米95式步枪精确度强于70年代设计的5.45毫米AK74并不让人惊奇。AK74的5.45毫米弹药精确度远比AKM的7.62×39口径要好,而AKM则是原苏联那种持续强火力优先于精确度教条思想下的产物。中国人在95式的设计中使用短冲程闭锁结构,目的就是提高射击准确度,同时保证枪械的可靠性,现在看这个中国人也确实达到了这个目标。但是在测试中5.8系列的精确度仍低于FNC的5.56×45系列,北约5.56小口径弹药采用圆柱弹体,相比使用锥形弹壳的5.45和5.8毫米弹药,在精确度方面有着先天的优越性。牺牲了一部分精确性,作为回报,锥体弹退壳的性能则更好更可靠。最后需要强调的是,虽然测试表明5.8毫米弹药的剩余动能和速度指标要好于SS109,但是差距并不明显。

  最后还有一个问题,我相信是大多数人都在疑惑的:为什么中国人不更简单地直接采用已有的5.56×45口径而去重新开发一种全新的小口径系列武器呢?我认为答案只有一个:就是受中国军队那种纯防卫的教条思想影响,他们认为一旦中国遭遇入侵,敌人将无法使用缴获的中国武器和弹药。以上的资料仅为转述和个人分析,真正的答案还是留给诸位自己去思考吧。新5.8毫米系列武器性能究竟如何,我们还要从未来真正的服役或者作战过程中去逐渐观察考证。现在可以做的结论只有一个,那就是:原苏联的卡式及其仿制品和变种在解放军序列中服役的历史行将结束。</P>
[此贴子已经被作者于2004-6-4 18:52:42编辑过]
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 楼主| 发表于 2004-06-05 02:31 | 显示全部楼层
<P>97 5.56mm枪族</P><P>95 5.8mm自动步枪</P><P></P><P></P><P>95 5.8mm短突</P><P></P><P></P><P>95 5.8mm班用机枪</P><P></P><P>92 5.8mm手枪</P><P></P><P>88 5.8mm狙击步枪</P><P></P><P></P><P>88 5.8mm通用机枪</P><P></P><P>87 5.8mm自动步枪以及87A 5.8mm自动步枪设计方案</P>
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发表于 2004-06-05 02:37 | 显示全部楼层
文章不错啊,怎么没人顶?? 我对轻武器研究不多,别拍砖~~哈哈
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 楼主| 发表于 2004-06-05 02:45 | 显示全部楼层
<P>原文在此:</P><P>China''s New 5.8x42mm Weapons Complex Revealed
by David M.Fortier
The Small Arms Review - Vol.5 No.12 - September, 2002

Since the Communists came to power Chinese small arms development has always been "A riddle wrapped in a mystery behind the Bamboo Curtain". All we in the West suspected was that the Chinese military was mostly armed with domestic copies of various obsolete Soviet designs. While there is truth in this, the rest of it may surprise you. The Chinese began extensive research and development on domestic designs as early as 1958. This led to the 1st (Type 63 and Type 74) and then 2nd (Type 81 and Type 87) generations of Chinese small arms. In the last 20 years, especially since the Open Door policy, China has made significant progress in small arms development. This has culminated in the design and adoption of their unique 5.8x42mm weapons complex. A system, they claim, that outperforms both the current NATO 5.56x45 SS109 and Russian 5.45x39 7N6 cartridges.

China historically had relied on foreign designed weapons to equip her vast armed forces. Germany in particular was a major player in China from the turn of the century until signing the Anti- Comintern Pact with Imperial Japan in 1937. After 193 7 another country''s influence was strongly felt in China, that of the Soviet Union. As early as 1932 the Soviets began supplying weapons to the Communist forces in China. Over time this aid greatly expanded. However, relations began to sour between the Chinese and Soviets after the Korean War and took a nose dive after Khrushchev came to power.

Using their experience with the Soviet designs, the Chinese undertook extensive research and development work beginning in 1958 to improve their small arms. It was based on their combat experience with full power battle rifle cartridges, as well as the less powerful 6.5 Arisaka and 7.62x25 sub-machineguns. They recognized the potential of the new intermediate 7.62x39 cartridge and admired the reliability of the Kalashnikov design. However they were not impressed by the AK-47''s accuracy or ergonomics. To fit their tactical needs they wanted a rifle as reliable as the Kalashnikov but with increased accuracy. It was intended to be used primarily in the semi-automatic mode for ammunition conservation. They also felt it must be useful with a bayonet for hand to hand combat. This was due to their doctrine calling for fighting very close to an opponent to negate his superiority in artillery or air support.

The result of their efforts was a weapon that outwardly resembled the Soviet SKS-45 carbine. Internally however it was quite different from Simonov''s design. It was adopted for service in 1963 and designated simply Type 63. The Type 63 rifle (incorrectly identified in the West as the Type 68) and the Type 74 Squad Auto represent the First Generation of domestically designed Chinese small arms. Not a battle rifle nor true assault rifle, it was outclassed by the M-16 during combat operations in Vietnam. It remained in service up until approximately 1974.

Seeing the changes in modem warfare, the Chinese went back to the drawing board. The Second Generation of Chinese small arms is seen in the Type 81 weapons series. The goal of the design team of the Type 81 rifle was to provide a modem assault rifle with the reliability of the Kalashnikov but with superior accuracy and ergonomics. After studying in detail the Soviet SVD Dragunov sniper rifle (Chinese Type 79) the Chinese came away quite impressed with its system of operation. They eventually used a modified short stroke gas system and a bolt/carrier system gleaned from it. It should be remembered however that the bolt/carrier system of the SVD is itself derived from the Kalashnikov. The culmination of their work was a rugged and reliable rifle with a few features not offered on the Kalashnikov. Unlike the AK-47/AKM the Type 81 features a bolt holdopen, a selector lever accessible by the operator''s thumb, an integral capacity to launch rifle grenades, and an adjustable gas system. The Type 81 weapons series includes the standard rifle weighing 7.49 Ibs, a 7.7 Ibs folding stock model, and an 11.4-pound squad auto. These three weapons maintain a high degree ofinterchangability with 64 parts common between them. Overall they are a well thought out and reliable design chambered for the venerable 7.62x39 cartridge.

However just as the Chinese were quick to appreciate the 7.62x39 intermediate cartridge they were also quick to take notice of the 5.56x45. As soon as the M-16 rifle appeared in Vietnam, the Chinese noted the advantages of the 5.56x45 cartridge. They appreciated that it allowed a compact and lightweight weapon, produced a low recoil impulse, was controllable on full auto, and allowed a larger basic load of ammunition and supplementary equipment. This increased a soldier''s survivability on the battlefield. What the Chinese were not impressed with was the reliability of the M-16 rifle itself, compared to their experiences with the AK- 47.

Noting the advantages of the small, high velocity round, they began extensive research and theoretical studies based on their combat observations of the war in Vietnam. Their goal was no simple one. They desired to find the ideal caliber to satisfy the Chinese military requirements ranges (400m) as well as in the supporting roleofamachinegun(upto 1000m). Their intention was not just to build a series of weapons based on an existing cartridge but rather to build a weapons complex using the ideal cartridge. This "Universal caliber" had always been a Holy Grail for which many have sought but none had found.

After extensive calculations they concluded that the ideal caliber would be 5.8mm, 6mm, or 6.2mm. They then designed a vast assortment of prototype cartridges for use in comparison testing. This is similar to our own SAW project which tested over 1000 configurations in calibers ranging from 5.56 to 7.62. Our final result was the 6x45mm SAW round which was never adopted due to logistical reasons. This shows that the U.S. and Chinese designers came to a similar conclusion as to the ideal caliber. Based on their test results the Chinese came to the final conclusion that the 5.8mm best fit their needs. The result is their new small caliber , a heavy projectile loading for use in their GPMG, and a specialty loading for use in sniper rifles.

The standard loading features a 64-grain FMJBT projectile with a 22.6-grain AP core loaded into a copper washed steel case. The overall cartridge length is 58mm, case length is 42.2mm, and the projectile is 24.2mm long. The cartridge case in that it is tapered; however, the case neck is shorter. It bears no outward resemblance to the 5.56x45. While straightwall cases like the 5.56 are inherently more accurate, tapered cases aid feeding and extraction. The projectile also exhibits a substantial sectional density, although not as great as that of the 5.45x39. Muzzle velocity from the Type 95''s 18.2-inch barrel is 3,050 fps. Out of the Type 95 Squad Auto''s 21.9-inch barrel it clocks 3.182 fps. The Chinese have tested their new cartridge extensively against both the 5.56x45 SS109 and the Russian 5.45x39 7N6. They claim their 5.8x42mm outperforms both cartridges with penetration superior to the SS109, a flatter trajectory, and a higher retained velocity and energy downrange.

Although the Chinese had developed their ideal cartridge they still had one major hurdle to overcome, the Chinese military. During the last Sino-Japanese war the Chinese had made extensive use of captured 6.5 Arisaka rifles and machineguns. From their combat experience they felt that this cartridge performed poorly, lacking penetration and killing power. They felt this was especially true when it was used from machinguns firing at long range. Recent combat experience, on the other hand, had proven the effectiveness of 7.62x39 assault rifles and 7.62x54R GPMG''s and sniper rifles. Due to this the Chinese military wanted nothing to do with a small caliber cartridge intended for use in machineguns as well as rifles.

So in order to convince the military, the Chinese Armament Bureau produced a quantity of transitional 5.8x42 assault rifles. These were based upon the Type 81 and were designated the Type S7. They were then siihnntteil to the military for extensive testing and Held trials against the existing 7.62x39 weapons. During these trials the 5.8X42 weapons outperformed the 7.62x39 weapons in every way. They proved superior enough for the Chinese military to adopt the new cartridge for use in the next generation of Chinese small arms.

With the problem of a suitable cartridge out of the way, during the late 1980''s the Chinese set to work designing the weapons to use it. The result of their work is not just a new assault rifle but an entire weapons complex. This includes an assault rifle (Type 95), Light Squad Auto (Type 95), Sniper rifle (Type KBU88), and surprisingly, a belt fed GPMG (Type QmS). Obviously lollowing the current trend in small arms development, they chose to use the bullpup configuration (except for the GPMG).

I was told that in designing the Type 95 they again took a long hard look at the SVD Dragunov design. This can be seen in the Type 95''s 3 lug rotating bolt, carrier, and adjustable short stroke piston gas system which is similar conceptually to the SVD''s. The main features of these new weapons are their extensive use of high tensile aluminum and modem high impact synthetic materials coupled with improved human engineering. In addition they feature cold hammer forged barrels for superior accuracy. The design emphasizes keeping as close as possible the distance between:

1. The center of gravity of the whole weapon and the center of gravity of the axisof the barrel.

2. The center of gravity of the bolt assembly and the axis oi''the gas piston.

3. The center of gravity of the barrel and the axis of the gas tube.

4. The center of gravity of the bolt carrier and the center of gravity of the whole gun.

They state, "This design brings a combined effect of compact structure, minimiz- ing the supplementary force of inertia, ensuring a stable and smooth movement of the bolt carrier, minimizing the overall weight of the rifle, increasing shooting accuracy, and promoting reliability." It is also interesting to note that they claim a reliability rate equal to that of the Kalashnikov. That in and of itself would be quite a feat.

These weapons were designed to use the following accessories:

1. Fixed or variable power telescopic sights with quick detachable mount.

2. Their latest star light night vision scope with quick detachable mount.

3. Quick detachable 35mm grenade launcher that mounts to the forend.

4. Multi-purpose bayonet which can be used as a bayonet, field knife, wire cutter, or a dagger.

While I personally do not care for bullpup style rifles, the Type 95 appears ergonomic and well balanced. The rear sight is mounted on an M-16 style carrying handle, which also accepts optical sights. The front sight assembly reminds one of the familiar AK unit. The charging handle is located inside the carrying handle, AR-10 style, and is ambidextrous. Feed is from 30 round synthetic magazines. The Type 95 Squad Auto shares the same bolt assembly, trigger assembly, upper and lower receiver, and magazines with the rifle. For its fire support role it''s equipped with a longer, heavier barrel to which a bipod is directly mounted. To increase its practical rate of fire, 75 round drum magazines are issued for it, although the standard 30 rounders will also work. In my experience Chinese drums are usually quite noisy though, as they allow the rounds to slap back and forth. Weighing in at just 8.7 Ibs it is more of a machine-rifle, along the lines of the L86A1 British Light Support Weapon, rather than like our own M249 SAW.

</P>
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 楼主| 发表于 2004-06-05 02:45 | 显示全部楼层
For reaching out and touching someone, there is the KBU88 sniper rifle. It''s equipped with a 25.1" hammer forged barrel, and the carrying handle has been replaced with a 3-9x variable telescope. The aiming holdover points in 100 meter increments. Fold down backup iron sights are also provided. An integral folding bipod, with legs individually adjustable for height, is attached to the barrel just in front of the handguard. Feed is from 20 or 30 round magazines. When tested against the Type 85 7.62x54R sniper rifle (SVD Dragunov) the KBU88 outperformed it in accuracy, higher hit probability at long range, was quicker to get into action, had capacity, and was lighter in weight -thus increasing the mobility of the sniper. We would consider it a Designated Marksman''s Rifle, rather than a true sniper fill on the modem battlefield.

The latest member of the 5.8mm family is the QJY88 GPMG. This project be- gan in July 1989 and after extensive testing in freezing cold, hot desert, windy, and sandy conditions to eliminate defects, it was formally adopted in July 1999. Feed is from 200 round belts. The feedway is equipped with 3 rollers, and the feeding during feeding and to aid reliability. It''s equipped with a bipod for use in the LMG role but can also be tripod mounted for sustained fire use. The tripod is equipped accuracy and quickly converts for A.A. use. For long service life the core of the barrel is hardened more than the rest during heat treating. Also a special pattern of rifling is used and the chrome plating carefully kept to . 18-.28mm to increase barrel service life. The Chinese claim it to be very simple, reliable, and mobile due to its light weight, coupled with long range and a high hit probability.

So the question is, exactly how well does this new Chinese 5.8x42 round stack up against our 5.56x45 and the Russian 5.45x39? The Chinese have tested their new cartridge extensively against both the 5.56x45 SS109 and the Russian 5.45x39 7N6. They claim their 5.8x42mm outperforms both cartridges with penetration superior to the SS 109, a flatter trajectory, and a higher retained velocity and energy downrange. I was recently able to get my hands on some documents containing some of their test results. Testing was conducted using a 5.45x39 AK-74 and 7N6 ball ammunition, a 5.56x45 FNC and SS109 ball and P 112 AP, and a Type 95 with 5.8x42 ball. Accuracy testing was conducted out to 600m between the three weapons. Projectile Time of Flight was recorded out to 800m. 3.5mm NATO spec hardened steel plates were shot at 640m and 700m. A 10mm hardened steel plate was shot at 310m. Finally, anesthetized livestock between the weight of 26-44 pounds were shot at a distance of 90m. All the infortained in the accompanying charts. For comparison I also included one chart on the performance of typical military rifles against NATO 3.5mm steel plate from tests performed by the USMC Firepower Division in Quantico, VA in the early 1980''s.

The Chinese test results indicate that their new 5.8x42mm cartridge is intended to provide an increase in effective range and penetration. The difference is that it is now possible for the high velocity small bore military cartridges to place fire at medium ranges without the weight and re- coil penalties of the older full power car- tridges. While obviously lacking the punch of a 7.62x51 at long range the 5.56x45 has none the less proven itself to be capable of superb accuracy at 600m. This has not been lost on the Chinese. Their 5.8x42 ball round is designed to surpass the per- formance of the 5.56x45 SS109, includ- ing at long range. That the Chinese wish to be able to extend the practical effective range of their small arms can also be seen in the Type 95''s ability to easily mount optical sights. While we don''t yet have any specifics on the dedicated sniper load for the KBU88 sniper rifle, that it outper- formed the 7.62x54R SVD out to 1000m speaks for itself.

Against steel plate the 5.8 easily out- performed the 5.45 7N6 ball loading as well as the 5.56 SS109. It equaled the penetration of the 5.56 PI 12 AP loading while providing greater retained energy. It should be remembered though that the 5.45 7N6 loading has a mild steel core and a more even test would have been to use the newer 7N10 High Penetration round. While the 5.8 retained more energy and velocity downrange, there is a downside to a light weight, small diameter projec- tile with high penetration. Such rounds can zip right through a man without doing sig- nificant damage. This was first seen on the Italian Front during World War I when it was common for soldiers hit through the lungs at long range by 6.5mm rounds to recover in a matter of weeks. Recently American troops witnessed this first hand in Mogadishu when close range hits on rebels with SS109 ammunition produced no immediate visual results. This was veri- fied in the livestock testing performed by the Chinese. Here the 5.45 7N6 load showed what it was designed to do and produced significantly larger wounds than eitherthe5.56SS109orthe5.8x42. How- ever the range here was short, only 90m. While the Chinese were impressed by, and commented on the tremendous close range wound capacity of the 5.45 7N6 loading, they also stated that by 600m its accuracy, penetration, and wound capability had dropped off significantly due to its light-weight 52 grain projectile. However they also felt the 5.45x39 to be a very economical cartridge to manufacture. The Chinese were impressed by the 5.56x45 SS109 and felt that it was effective up to 600m. However they felt that it had the disadvantages of high chamber pressures, and because it utilized brass cartridge cases, was not economical to produce.

While the 5.8 was superior in penetration to the 5.56 SS109, the same was not true of accuracy. That the new Type 95/ 5.8x42mm combination was more accurate than the 70''s vintage Russian AK--74/ 5.45x39mm combo is really no great surprise. While the AK-74 is more accurate than the 7.62x39 AKM, at the time of its design Soviet doctrine relied on massed automatic fire rather than accuracy. By switching to a short stroke gas system, the accuracy over the Kalashnikov while maintaining the same level of reliability. It appears that they have accomplished this. However the FNC/5.56x45mm combo easily outshot the new Chinese system. Straightwall case designs, such as the 5.56x45, tend to be more accurate than tapered case designs such as the 5.45x39 and 5.8x42. The trade-off being that tapered cases feed and extract easier. While troops complain about the M -16A2, it can not be faulted for its accuracy. Also keep in mind when looking at the Chinese data SS109 round out of an M-16A2 is higher than that listed for the test FNC. However they are within NATO SS 109 spec''s which call for a 61.7 grain bullet at 3025fps 25m from the muzzle. While the 5.8 exhibits higher retained velocity and energy in their test results compared to the 5.56 SS109, the difference is small.

Why did the Chinese bother with developing an entirely new assault rifle cartridge when they could have simply adopted the 5.56x45 is a question I''m sure many will ask. The only reason I''ve been given is that the PLA has a defensive doctrine and if China were invaded their unique caliber weapons would prohibit an attacking force from utilizing captured weapons against the PLA. I will let you of this new cartridge based on the accompanying data. How China''s new 5.8x42mm series of weapons fares in service or combat remains to be seen. One thing is certain though, the Kalashnikov''s service with the PLA appears to be coming to an end. While the Type 95 was officially adopted in 1995 and is standard issue with the Hong Kong garrison force, spread issue simply due to the size of the PLA.

Acknowledgments: Much thanks to Dave Brown at Sierra Bullets for his patience and help making sense of the ballistic data in its original form and to Mark Vorobiev for a Russian point of view.

References:

Bolotin, David. SOVIET SMALL ARMS AND AMMUNITION. Finnish Arms Museum Foundation, Hyvinka, Finland. 1995.

Cutshaw, Charlie. THE NEW WORLD OF RUSSIAN SMALL ARMS &amp; AMMO. Paladin Press, Boulder, CO. 1998.

Harris, C.E.. "The M-16A2: New World Standard For Infantry Rifles" GUN DIGEST, 40th Edition. DB1 Books Inc. Northbrook, IL. 1986. SLIDE CAPTIONS
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头像被屏蔽
发表于 2004-06-05 03:10 | 显示全部楼层
建议加精!
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发表于 2004-06-05 03:18 | 显示全部楼层
不错不错,三八大盖这把烂枪,居然还让咱小口径研制遇到了点小麻烦!!
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发表于 2004-06-05 04:29 | 显示全部楼层
<P>看了,好文,我喜欢95</P>
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发表于 2004-06-05 05:58 | 显示全部楼层
good[em05][em05][em05][em05][em05][em05][em05]
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发表于 2004-06-05 06:59 | 显示全部楼层
好,[em01]
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头像被屏蔽
发表于 2004-06-05 07:30 | 显示全部楼层
老外是通过什么渠道得到95及5.8弹药的,不会有事北方吧?
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发表于 2004-06-05 08:15 | 显示全部楼层
我们也大卖特卖阿
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发表于 2004-06-05 08:32 | 显示全部楼层
精品文章,顶!!
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发表于 2004-06-05 15:03 | 显示全部楼层
<B>以下是引用<I>gf731</I>在2004-6-4 23:30:00的发言:</B>
老外是通过什么渠道得到95及5.8弹药的,不会有事北方吧?

<P>CIA想搞个5。8的弹药还是很容易的
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发表于 2004-06-05 17:06 | 显示全部楼层
<P>看了,好文,我喜欢95</P>
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发表于 2004-06-05 17:27 | 显示全部楼层
[QUOTE][/QUOTE]  <B></B>
<P>看了,好文,我喜欢95</P>     我太喜欢95了,那里能搞到呀[em05]
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CDer:000004010
 楼主| 发表于 2004-06-05 18:04 | 显示全部楼层
我卖,我卖,我这里有95 BB枪,HOHO[em01]
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CDer:000025895
发表于 2004-06-06 04:22 | 显示全部楼层
<P>以下是引用<I>gf731</I>在2004-6-4 23:30:00的发言:
老外是通过什么渠道得到95及5.8弹药的,不会有事北方吧?</P><P>你怎么不问我们实验怎么得到国外的弹药武器的,好象没听到武器禁运包括轻武器吧</P>
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CDer:000038463
发表于 2004-06-06 09:11 | 显示全部楼层
<P>hao</P><P>北方一直在卖97系列阿</P>
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CDer:000027564
发表于 2004-06-06 11:16 | 显示全部楼层
<P>文章不错</P><P>我们的95不赖</P>
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CDer:000003791
发表于 2004-06-06 15:16 | 显示全部楼层
好文
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CDer:000022526
发表于 2004-06-06 20:29 | 显示全部楼层
精屁
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CDer:000024580
发表于 2004-06-07 08:13 | 显示全部楼层
<P>好文章啊,鼎置!!!文章翻译的好,有专业水准</P>
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
CDer:000007210
发表于 2004-06-07 19:06 | 显示全部楼层
不错,看来5.8mm弹的威力是没有问题的,但95似乎不太尽如人意,87式倒还不错。
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CDer:000002175
发表于 2004-06-07 22:22 | 显示全部楼层
<P>先感谢翻译的人,好厉害!!</P><P>是我们CD的人翻译的么?</P>
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
CDer:000028291
发表于 2004-06-08 01:42 | 显示全部楼层
精品啊,文章和枪
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CDer:000009018
发表于 2004-06-08 03:16 | 显示全部楼层
建议加精!
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
CDer:000012132
发表于 2004-06-08 05:31 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主的辛勤劳动, 感谢!
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
CDer:000048231
发表于 2004-06-08 07:15 | 显示全部楼层
<P>5.8的杀伤能力的确不怎么样</P>
<P>这点5.45最好</P>
<P>不过面对大量身披防弹衣的敌人,5.8的穿透力还是有用武之地的!</P>
<P>支持5.8!</P>
<P>既然我们能弄到aug和G36,外国人也能弄到95</P>
[此贴子已经被作者于2004-6-8 9:01:11编辑过]
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CDer:000048412
发表于 2004-06-08 10:42 | 显示全部楼层
<B>以下是引用<I>S.W.A.T@L.Z.P.D</I>在2004-6-4 19:10:00的发言:</B>
建议加精!


同意
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CDer:000044880
发表于 2004-06-08 19:50 | 显示全部楼层
<P>可以看出老外对95的评价还是不错的,</P><P>我觉得通用机枪很漂亮。</P>
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CDer:000029525
发表于 2004-06-08 21:39 | 显示全部楼层
辛苦楼主了 呵呵
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CDer:000016697
发表于 2004-06-11 17:21 | 显示全部楼层
我国采用5.8毫米口径是有特殊意义的,除了5.8毫米在弹道性能超群外,还有一点很重要,就是要有中国特色.用来突出我国的大国地位.当年北约在选择小口径枪弹时有英国的6毫米和美国的5.56毫米之争,从性能来看6毫米更好,但胳膊拧不过大腿.最后还是老美赢了.因此我国采用5.8毫米到不是怕别国用我们的武器弹药.
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CDer:000013747
发表于 2004-06-11 21:20 | 显示全部楼层
<P>登上台湾岛还是5。56好啊,国军枪很烂,但子弹不用太可惜了。</P>
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CDer:000034751
发表于 2004-06-12 02:22 | 显示全部楼层
我看过武警狙击手训练。不错。
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CDer:000029635
发表于 2004-06-12 05:15 | 显示全部楼层

好帖
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最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
CDer:000048085
发表于 2004-06-12 07:05 | 显示全部楼层
<P>我也喜欢用95!不过现在转行了!没抢用了!</P><P></P><P></P>
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
CDer:000019535
发表于 2004-06-12 08:01 | 显示全部楼层
<P>好文</P><P>翻译的不错</P><P>不过文章最后一点不敢苟同</P>
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
CDer:000048792
发表于 2004-06-12 08:16 | 显示全部楼层
<P>http://jczsbbs1.sina.com.cn/cgi-bin/view.cgi?gid=5&amp;fid=37&amp;thread=32516&amp;date=20040603</P><P>都被批烂了</P>
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
CDer:000004010
 楼主| 发表于 2004-06-12 17:03 | 显示全部楼层
<B>以下是引用<I>无聊路人甲</I>在2004-6-12 0:16:00的发言:</B>

<P>http://jczsbbs1.sina.com.cn/cgi-bin/view.cgi?gid=5&amp;fid=37&amp;thread=32516&amp;date=20040603</P>
<P>都被批烂了</P>

<P>不就是楼上的在跟别人掰么?呵呵,我没你厉害,掰不过你,不过,我想DBOY应该可以</P>[em35]
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