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红色鲨鱼-前苏联潜艇舰队全集-大吐大图[★New★]

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Project 685 Plavnik
Mike class

The Project 685 was an advanced submarine developed to test advanced submarine technologies. The submarine could carry a mix of torpedoes and cruise missiles with conventional or nuclear warheads. The design was initially developed in the 1960s, but the first unit was not laid down at Severodvinsk until 22 April 1978. The submarine K-278 Komsomolets ["member of the Young Communist League"] was launched on 09 May 1983 and commissioned in late 1984. The submarine Komsomolets was built as an experimental vessel, and was the only one of its class to enter service. The construction of one additional submarine was reported started in Severodvinsk, but work was halted prior to its completion.
The hull was of double-hull configuration, divided into seven compartments: Torpedo room, Accommodations, Control room, Reactor compartment, Electrical motors, Turbines and Auxiliary mechanisms. The inner pressure hull was titanium, light and strong, making her the world's deepest diving submarine, and her operating depth below 3,000 feet was far below that of the best American submariness. A personnel rescue sphere was fitted in the sail to enable the crew to escape in the event of an underwater emergency. According to Western intelligence estimates, the Mike was powered by a pair of liquid-metal/lead-bismuth reactors, although the Soviet Union subsequently disclosed that the submarine used a single pressurized-water reactor of conventional design. This resulted in subsequent lower estimates for the boat's maximum speed.

On 07 April 1989, while the Komsomolets was submerged at a depth of 500-1,250 feet a fire erupted in the aft compartment when a high-pressure air line connecting to main ballast tanks allowing the submarine to control its depth bursts a seal. A spray of oil hit a hot surface, and a flash fire began which soon The fire spread through cableways despite closed hatches. The emergency system to protect the nuclear reactors from overload kicked in, and the propeller shaft stopped. Within minutes electrical problems were reported all over the submarine, and many security systems failed. The boat managed to surface eleven minutes after discovery of the fire, but the rupture in the main compressed air system fed the fire further. The crew fought the fire for several hours before the submarine flooded and sank. As she sank, the commanding officer and four others entered the escape pod, but it was partially flooded and filled with toxic gas, and only one of the five survived the ascent to the surface. Small rafts were dropped from the rescue aircraft, but there were not enough for the 50 men in the water. Of the 69 crew members, 42 were killed in the accident, most dying in the water of hypothermia [at 36° F the water was cold enough to kill them in 15 minutes].

The Komsomolets sank 180 km southeast of Bear Island off the coast of Norway in 1,500-1,700 meters of water. The Komsomolets was carrying two nuclear torpedoes [along with eight conventional torpedoes] when she sank. Two investigations, one by a state commission and another conducted independently, failed to fully account for the magnitude of the accident, though the independent commission suggested that Komsomolets had construction flaws. Others have claimed that the crew was not properly trained to operate the submarine's equipment. The Norwegians claimed they could have reached the scene by air or surface two hours before the submarine sank.

The site of the accident is one of the richest fishing areas in the world, and the possible leakage of radioactive material could jeopardize the local fisheries, valued at billions of dollars annually. Two months after the sinking, the oceanographic rescue ship Akademik Mstislav Keldysh using submersibles found Komsomolets a mile down. In August of 1991, Keldysh returned to the scene and examination of the wreck in May 1992 revealed cracks along the entire length of the titanium hull, some of which were of 30-40 centimeters wide, as well as possible breaches in the primary coolant circuit that could permit fission products to leach out into sea water. As of early 1993 Russian officials maintained that leaks were "insignificant" and posed no threat to the environment. Results of the August 1993 survey suggested that waters at the site were not mixing vertically, and thus the sea life in the area was not being rapidly contaminated. The 1993 survey also revealed a hole over 20 feet wide blown in the forward torpedo compartment.

Several underwater submersible missions to the site revealed that sea water was corroding the casings of the warheads and the hull of the submarine, a process accelerated by the rapidly shifting currents. Concern was expressed that radiation could leak from missiles and contaminate a large area because of the aperiodically high (up to 1.5 m/sec) currents in the area. The Radioactivity and Environmental Security in the Oceans Conference at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution on June 7-9, 1993 considered the environmental monitoring program on the Komsomolets submarine. An expedition during the summer of 1994 revealed some plutonium leakage from one of the sub's two nuclear-tipped torpedoes. The expedition was successful in sealing some of the holes in the submarine's hull.

The cost of raising the submarine was estimated at about of $1 billion, which would entail the hazard that the submarine hull might not remain intact during the operation. An alternative plan was to encase the submarine by hermetically sealing it with a jelly-like material. On 24 June 1995 work began on sealing parts of the hull, and the objective was achieved at the end of July 1996. The hull was said to be safe for at least 20 to 30 more years. As of the late 1990s examinations of the area where the sub sank measured only small leaks of radioactivity from the wreck.


Specifications
Designer:  N.A. Klimov and J.N. Karmilitsin, SKB-18 (Rubin)  
Displacement (tons):  4,400-5,750 tons surface
6,400-8,000 tons submerged  
Speed (kts):  14 knots surfaced
36-38 submerged [initial US estimates]
26-30 knots submerged [later estimates]
Endurance  4,500 full power hours
50 days stores endurance  
Operating Depth:  3,300 feet Maximum Safe Depth
4,100 feet Never Exceed Depth
5,000 feet Crush Depth  
Dimensions (m):  117.5 [110-120] meters long
10.7 [11-12] meters beam
8-9 meters draft  
Propulsion:  1 190 MWt OK-650 b-3 pressurised water reactor
2 steam turbines 43-47,000 shp
1 7-blade propeller
Crew:  64-68 (29-32 officers + 21 warrants + 15 enlisted)  
Armament:  
Missiles:  2 - SS-N-15 Starfish RPK-2 Viyoga
? - SS-N-16 Stallion

Torpedoes:  6 21-in (533-mm) torpedo tubes (bow)  
Systems  1 Snoop Head surface search radar
Shark Gill low-frequency active sonar
Bald Eagle EW


Class Listing
Unit Shipyard Fleet Chronology Notes  
# number Name  Laid Down  Launched  Comm.  Stricken  
1 K-278  Komsomolets  SY 402 NOR 04/22/1978  05/09/1983  12/31/1984  1989 10/1988 named
04/07/1989 lost
2   SY 402      construction halted
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 楼主| 发表于 2003-03-03 04:19 | 显示全部楼层
A级即Alfa级


原型艇于1970年在列宁格勒完工,74年被拆毁。
第二艘于77年完工,78年至83年在列宁格勒和德文斯克完成6艘。A型布局与V型差不多,但才用钠反应堆,水下航速40节。采用钛合金耐压艇壳,潜深达到900米!操!创造了核潜艇航速和潜深的记录。




[此贴子已经被作者于2003-3-2 20:33:58编辑过]
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霍霍,M级的图很少的啊!麻烦兄弟重新编辑一下把艇型名字加加在图片主题标题栏里如何?可以普及一下兄弟们的潜艇知识!!!
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[此贴子已经被作者于2003-3-22 18:50:40编辑过]
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Project 705 Lira
Alfa class
Attack Submarine (Nuclear Powered)
The Project 705 Alfa class constitued the world's fastest and deepest diving submarines of their time. The submarine featured a high power-to-weight reactor to increase the power-to-weight and volume ratios of her propulsion plant, the first use of titanium for the hull, extensive automation, and advanced drag-reduction configuration.

Project 705 originated in a 1957 requirement for a 1500 ton "interceptor" submarine capable of a speed of 40 knots that would sortie to attack American aircraft carriers. Using a titanium alloy allowed the thickness and weight of the hull to be reduced, producing a remarkably small, very fast submarine. Around 1963 the desing was substantially revised, with the displacement was increased to 2,300 tons, the number of internal compartments increased from three to six and the size of the crew was doubled.
Construction of the first Project 661 prototype unit began around 1965, which was completed at the Sudomekh shipyard in Leningrad in 1972. The prototype was rebuilt after trials, and subsequently broken up around 1974. Made from titanium alloys, it could accelerate to a speed of 44.7 knots, a record which will hardly be beaten in the near future.

Although a much-feared design in the West, these concerns were prompted by grossly exaggerated accounts of the boat's capabilities and an assumption that they represented the main thrust of Soviet submarine development. The fast, deep diving nuclear submarine threat proved a false alarm, but they provoked massive investments in ASW weapons by the US Navy, and resulting in dramatic improvements in the Mk. 46 and Mk. 48 torpedoes that apparently culminated in the 63-knot ADCAP torpedo.

Extremely noisy at high speeds, the noise levels of the Alfa at lower speeds were generally similar to that of other Soviet SSNs. Though extremely fast, the boats were unreliable, poorly armed and with sensors that were unique, hard to maintain and frequently defective. Two different models of liquid metal (probably lead-bismuth) reactors were used. The four boats built at the Admiralty shipyard used the BM-40A reactor with two separate steam loops and circulating pumps. The boats built at Severodvinsk [Project 705K] used the OK-550 with branched first-loop lines and triple circulating loops and pumps.

The reactors required a heater to prevent the liquid metal coolant from solidifying. In 1972 the reactor on K-377 suffered a casualty during sea trials and the metal coolant "froze" destroying the reactor. In 1982 the reactor on K.316 was destroyed when the heating system was accidentally turned off. A special facility was constructed the submarines were moored to supply superheated steam to heat the liquid metal when the reactors were shut down. External heating proved unsatisfactory, and the reactors had to be kept running even while the submarines were in port.


Series production of the Project 705 boats began in the mid-1970s, and the program ended in 1983 with the sixth production unit. Eventually four of the seven Project 705s were lost due to reactor failures. One boat was retired by the end of 1987, and four others were decommissioned in 1990-1992. At least one [and possibly two] was modified with VM-4 pressurized water reactors from Project 671B and used for test activities prior to being decommissioned in 1995.

Specifications
Displacement (tons):  2,310-2,900 tons Surfaced
3,800-4,320 tons Submerged  
Speed (kts):  14 knots surfaced
43-45 knots submerged  
Endurance:  1,175 full power hours
30-50 days stores endurance  
Operating Depth  1,150-2,000 feet Maximum Safe Depth
1,400-3,900 feet Never-Exceed Depth
1,700-?,??? feet Crush Depth  
Dimensions (m):  79.5-81.4 meters long
9.5 meters beam
6.9-7.6 meters draft  
Propulsion:  1 liquid-metal nuclear reactors
(155 MWt Type: OK-550 or BM-40A)
[2 units re-engined with VM-4 reactor from Project 671B]
2 steam turbines; 40-47,000 shp
1 5 bladed propeller  
Crew:  31-45  
Armament:  
Missiles:  21 81R (SS-N-15) or
12 Vodopad (SS-N-16)

Torpedoes:  6 533mm bow TT
18 53-65K, SET-65 torpedoes or
20 VA-111 torpedoes or
21 SS-N-15/81R or
24 mines

Systems:  Topol MRK.50 [Snoop Tray] Surface Search radar
Sozh Navigation system radar
MG-21 Rosa Underwater communications
Molniya Satellite communications
Vint & Tissa Communications antennas
Accord Combat direction system
Leningrad-705 Fire control system
Okean active/passive Sonar
MG-24 Luch mine detection sonar
Bukhta ESM/ECM
Yenisei Sonar intercept receiver
Khrom-KM IFF


Class Listing
Unit Shipyard Fleet Chronology Notes  
# number Name  Laid Down  Launched  Comm.  Stricken  
1 K-377   SY 196 NOR 1965 1967 1972 1974 ex K.71
test ship 1974
reactor accident in sea trial
dismantled
2 K-316   SY 196 NOR ----------  1974 1979 ----------  1990-93 in reserve
1995- dismantled
3 K-373   SY 196 NOR ----------  1976 1978 ----------  1990-93 in reserve
in storage in Zapadnaya Litsa
4 K-123   SY 402 NOR 01/**/1975  12/26/1977  ----------  1995 project 705K lead ship
built at SV12/1978 operational
08/08/1982 reactor accident
1990 new reactor installed
1991 recommissioned as test ship
5 K-432   SY 402 NOR ----------  1978 1982 ----------  project 705K
1990-93 in reserve
1994-95 dismantled
6 K-463   SY 196 NOR ----------  1978 1982 1986  1986- reactor accident and decommissioned
project 671B conversion (new PWR)
1990-93 in reserve
dismantled
7 K-493   SY 402 NOR ----------  1981 1983 11/1997  project 705K
project 671B conversion (new PWR)
1990-93 in reserve
dismantled
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 楼主| 发表于 2003-03-03 04:43 | 显示全部楼层
Victor I



Victor即V级攻击核潜艇

前苏联第二代攻击核潜艇。首艇68年服役。
V型分为5300顿的V-I型(16艘),5800顿的V-II型(7艘),6000顿的V-III型(18艘)。是前苏联第一种采用美国“大青花鱼”水滴型的双壳潜艇。前面说了,V-III的最大特征就是垂尾顶端有一个拖曳声纳整流罩。艇首有六个鱼雷发射管,可发射533MM鱼雷和反潜导弹,是专门跟踪和攻击美国北极星导弹核潜艇的攻击核潜艇。


[此贴子已经被作者于2003-3-2 20:55:44编辑过]
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Victor II
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Victor III
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酷!!!!
[此贴子已经被作者于2003-3-3 23:20:30编辑过]
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