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[视图资料] Astronomy Picture of the Day 2010-每日天文一图第四季

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CDer:000024255
 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-09 15:20 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2010-2-9 16:22 编辑

2010 February 9

Night Launch of the Space Shuttle Endeavour
Credit: NASA
Explanation: Sometimes, the space shuttle launches at night. Pictured above, the space shuttle Endeavour lifted off in yesterday's early morning hours from Launch Pad 39A in Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA, bound for the International Space Station (ISS). A night launch, useful for reaching the space station easily during some times of the year, frequently creates vivid launch imagery. The shuttle, as pictured above, is framed by an enormous but typical exhaust plume ejected as the shuttle's powerful rockets began lifting the two million kilogram space bus into Earth orbit. Endeavour's mission, labeled STS-130, includes the delivery of the Tranquility module to the space station. Tranquility will provide extra room for space station astronauts and includes a large circular set of windows designed to bestow vastly improved views of the Earth, the night sky, and the space station itself.

说明:有时候,航天飞机在夜晚发射上面的影像就是奋进号航天飞机在昨日凌晨时分从美国佛罗里达州肯尼迪航天中心39A发射平台发射升空,并飞往国际空间站ISS)。在一年中的有些时候,夜间发射更便于航天飞机到达空间站,而且经常能拍摄到生动的发射影像。在上面的影像里,航天飞机喷射出巨大的尾气强力火箭将航天飞机推升到200万公里高的太空中,并使之进入地球轨道。此次奋进号的使命被标记为STS-130,包括将宁静号舱送入空间站。宁静号舱将为空间站宇航员提供额外的房间,还有一件巨大的圆形视窗组建,此设计用来进一步改进视觉效果,包括观看地球,夜空以及空间站本身


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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-10 15:57 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 9

Sakurajima Volcano with Lightning
Credit & Copyright: Martin Rietze (Alien Landscapes on Planet Earth)
Explanation: Why does a volcanic eruption sometimes create lightning? Pictured above, the Sakurajima volcano in southern Japan was caught erupting early last month. Magma bubbles so hot they glow shoot away as liquid rock bursts through the Earth's surface from below. The above image is particularly notable, however, for the lightning bolts caught near the volcano's summit. Why lightning occurs even in common thunderstorms remains a topic of research, and the cause of volcanic lightning is even less clear. Surely, lightning bolts help quench areas of opposite but separated electric charges. One hypothesis holds that catapulting magma bubbles or volcanic ash are themselves electrically charged, and by their motion create these separated areas. Other volcanic lightning episodes may be facilitated by charge-inducing collisions in volcanic dust. Lightning is usually occurring somewhere on Earth, typically over 40 times each second.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-11 13:36 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 11

Star Cluster M34
Credit & Copyright: Bob Franke
Explanation: This pretty open cluster of stars, M34, is about the size of the Full Moon on the sky. Easy to appreciate in small telescopes, it lies some 1,800 light-years away in the constellation Perseus. At that distance, M34 physically spans about 15 light-years. Formed at the same time from the same cloud of dust and gas, all the stars of M34 are about 200 million years young. But like any open star cluster orbiting in the plane of our galaxy, M34 will eventually disperse as it experiences gravitational tides and encounters with the Milky Way's interstellar clouds and other stars. Over four billion years ago, our own Sun was likely formed in a similar open star cluster.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-12 15:22 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 12

Teide Sky Trails
Credit & Copyright: Daniel López
Explanation: The snow capped Teide volcano is reflected in a pool of water in this nearly symmetric night sky view from the Canary Island Tenerife. Bright north star Polaris stands above the peak in an exposure that also captures the brilliant trail of a polar orbiting Iridium satellite. Of course, with the camera fixed to a tripod, the stars themselves produce concentric trails in long exposures, a reflection of the Earth's rotation around its axis. In fact, you can add about 4.5 hours of exposure time to this image by just sliding your cursor over the picture. Large astronomical observatories also take advantage of the calm Canary Island sky.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-13 13:56 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 13

Waterway to Orbit
Credit & Copyright: James Vernacotola
Explanation: The 32nd shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-130, left planet Earth on February 8. Its early morning launch to orbit from Kennedy Space Center's pad 39A followed the long, graceful, eastward arc seen in this 2 minute time exposure. Well composed, the dramatic picture also shows the arc's watery reflection from the Intracoastal Waterway Bridge, in Ponte Vedra, Florida, about 115 miles north of the launch site. In the celestial background a waning crescent Moon and stars left their own short trails against the still dark sky. The brightest star trail near the moon was made by red supergiant Antares, alpha star of the constellation Scorpius.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-14 15:45 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 14

Field of Rosette
Credit & Copyright: Rogelio Bernal Andreo (Deep Sky Colors)
Explanation: What surrounds the florid Rosette nebula? To better picture this area of the sky, the famous flowery emission nebula on the far right has been captured recently in a deep and dramatic wide field image that features several other sky highlights. Designated NGC 2237, the center of the Rosette nebula is populated by the bright blue stars of open cluster NGC 2244, whose winds and energetic light are evacuating the nebula's center. Below the famous flower, a symbol of Valentine's Day, is a column of dust and gas that appears like a rose's stem but extends hundreds of light years. Across the above image, the bright blue star just left and below the center is called S Monocerotis. The star is part of the open cluster of stars labelled NGC 2264 and known as the Snowflake cluster. To the right of S Mon is a dark pointy featured called the Cone nebula, a nebula likely shaped by winds flowing out a massive star obscured by dust. To the left of S Mon is the Fox Fur nebula, a tumultuous region created by the rapidly evolving Snowflake cluster. The Rosette region, at about 5,000 light years distant, is about twice as far away as the region surrounding S Mon. The entire field can be seen with a small telescope toward the constellation of the Unicorn (Monoceros).
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-15 19:52 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 15

Cassini Spacecraft Crosses Saturn's Ring Plane
Credit: Cassini Imaging Team, ISS, JPL, ESA, NASA
Explanation: If this is Saturn, where are the rings? When Saturn's "appendages" disappeared in 1612, Galileo did not understand why. Later that century, it became understood that Saturn's unusual protrusions were rings and that when the Earth crosses the ring plane, the edge-on rings will appear to disappear. This is because Saturn's rings are confined to a plane many times thinner, in proportion, than a razor blade. In modern times, the robot Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn now also crosses Saturn's ring plane. A series of plane crossing images from late February was dug out of the vast online Cassini raw image archive by interested Spanish amateur Fernando Garcia Navarro. Pictured above, digitally cropped and set in representative colors, is the striking result. Saturn's upper atmosphere appear in gold. Since Saturn just passed its equinox, today the ring plane is pointed close to the Sun and the rings could not cast the high dark shadows seen across the top of this image, taken back in 2005. Moons appear as bumps in the rings.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-16 23:25 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 16

Dark Shuttle Approaching
Credit: Expedition 22 Crew, NASA
Explanation: What's that approaching? Astronauts on board the International Space Station first saw it far in the distance. Soon it enlarged to become a dark silhouette. As it came even closer, the silhouette appeared to be a spaceship. Finally, at just past 11 pm (CST) last Tuesday, the object, revealed to be the Space Shuttle Endeavor, docked as expected with the Earth-orbiting space station. Pictured above, Endeavor was imaged near Earth's horizon as it approached, where several layers of the Earth's atmosphere were visible. Directly behind the shuttle is the mesosphere, which appears blue. The atmospheric layer that appears white is the stratosphere, while the orange layer is Earth's Troposphere. This shuttle mission, which began with a dramatic night launch and will continue into next week, has many tasks planned. These tasks include the delivery of the Tranquility Module which includes a cupola bay window complex that may allow even better views of spaceships approaching and leaving the space station.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-17 17:35 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 17

An Unusually Smooth Surface on Saturn's Calypso
Credit: Cassini Imaging Team, SSI, JPL, ESA, NASA
Explanation: Why is this moon of Saturn so smooth? This past weekend, humanity's Saturn-orbiting Cassini spacecraft passed as close to Saturn's small moon Calypso as it ever has, and imaged the small moon in unprecedented detail. Pictured above is an early return, raw, unprocessed image of the 20-km long irregularly shaped moon. Like its sister moon Telesto and the shepherd moon Pandora, Calypso has shown itself to be usually smooth, much smoother than most of Saturn's larger moons. A leading hypothesis for Calypso's smoothness is that much of the moon's surface is actually a relatively loose jumble of rubble -- making Calypso a rubble-pile moon. The loose nature of the small ice pieces allows them to fill in many small craters and other surface features. Calypso orbits Saturn always behind Saturn's much larger moon Tethys, whereas Telesto's orbit always precedes Tethys. Calypso's extremely white surface -- not unlike fresh snow -- may result from the continuous accumulation of fresh ice particles falling in from Saturn's E ring.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-18 17:01 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 18

Vesta Near Opposition
Credit & Copyright: Jimmy Westlake
Explanation: Main belt asteroid 4 Vesta is at its brightest now. The small world is near opposition (opposite the Sun in the sky) and closest to Earth. But even at its brightest, Vesta is just too faint to spot with the naked-eye. Still, over the next few days it will be relatively easy to find in the constellation Leo, sharing a typical binocular field of view with bright star Gamma Leonis (aka Algieba). In fact on February 16 Vesta passed between Gamma Leonis and close neighbor on the sky 40 Leonis. Gamma Leonis is the brightest star in these two panels, while the second brightest star, 40 Leonis, is directy to its right. As marked, Vesta is the third brightest "star" in the field. Vesta shifts position between the two panels from well below 40 Leonis on Feb. 14 to near the top of the frame from Feb. 16, shooting the gap between the close Gamma/40 Leonis pair. Of course, premier close-up views of the asteroid will be possible after the ion-powered Dawn spacecraft arrives at Vesta in August of 2011.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-19 14:41 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 19

WISE Infrared Andromeda
Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / UCLA
Explanation: This sharp, wide-field view features infrared light from the spiral Andromeda Galaxy (M31). Dust heated by Andromeda's young stars is shown in yellow and red, while its older population of stars appears as a bluish haze. The false-color skyscape is a mosaic of images from NASA's new Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite. With over twice the diameter of our Milky Way, Andromeda is the largest galaxy in the local group. Andromeda's own satellite galaxies M110 (below) and M32 (above) are also included in the combined fields. Launched in December 2009, WISE began a six month long infrared survey of the entire sky on January 14. Expected to discover near-Earth asteroids as well as explore the distant universe, its sensitive infrared detectors are cooled by frozen hydrogen.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-20 13:13 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 20

Geostationary Highway
Credit & Copyright: Babak Tafreshi (TWAN) Explanation: Put a satellite in a circular orbit about 42,000 kilometers from the center of the Earth (36,000 kilometers or so above the surface) and it will orbit once in 24 hours. Because that matches Earth's rotation period, it is known as a geosynchronous orbit. If that orbit is also in the plane of the equator, the satellite will hang in the sky over a fixed location in a geostationary orbit. As predicted in the 1940s by futurist Arthur C. Clark, geostationary orbits are in common use for communication and weather satellites, a scenario now well-known to astroimagers. Deep images of the night sky made with telescopes that follow the stars can also pick up geostationary satellites glinting in sunlight still shining far above the Earth's surface. Because they all move with the Earth's rotation against the background of stars, the satellites leave trails that seem to follow a highway across the celestial landscape. For example, in this wide view of the nearly equatorial Orion region, individual frames were added to create a 10 minute long exposure. It shows Orion's belt stars and well-known nebulae along with many 2.5 degree long geostationary satellite trails. The frames are from an ingenious movie, featuring the geostationary satellite highway.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-21 13:25 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2010-2-24 19:14 编辑

2010 February 21

NGC 2440: Cocoon of a New White Dwarf
Credit: H. Bond (STScI), R. Ciardullo (PSU), WFPC2, HST, NASA
Explanation: Like a butterfly, a white dwarf star begins its life by casting off a cocoon that enclosed its former self. In this analogy, however, the Sun would be a caterpillar and the ejected shell of gas would become the prettiest of all! In the above cocoon, the planetary nebula designated NGC 2440, contains one of the hottest white dwarf stars known. The white dwarf can be seen as the bright dot near the photo's center. Our Sun will eventually become a white dwarf butterfly but not for another 5 billion years. The above false color image was post-processed by Forrest Hamilton.

说明:就像一只蝴蝶一样,白矮星抛弃了星茧、结束了原先的生命从而开始了新的旅程。在这个比喻里,然而,太阳将是一只小毛虫,喷射出了气体外壳,形成了一直最美丽的蝴蝶。上面这个星茧是一个行星状星云,它被命名为NGC2440,其中含有迄今为止所知最炽热的白矮星之一。在上面影像的中央附近有一个明亮的点,那就是白矮星。我们太阳再过50亿年,也将最终变成一颗白矮星。上面的这张假色影像Forrest Hamilton后期处理。

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-22 15:14 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2010-2-24 19:15 编辑

2010 February 22

Galaxy Group Hickson 31
Credit: NASA, ESA, J. English (U. Manitoba), and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA);
Acknowledgement: S. Gallagher (U. Western Ontario)
Explanation: Will the result of these galactic collisions be one big elliptical galaxy? Quite possibly, but not for another billion years. Pictured above, several of the dwarf galaxies of in the Hickson Compact Group 31 are seen slowly merging. Two of the brighter galaxies are colliding on the far left, while an elongated galaxy above is connected to them by an unusual bridge of stars. Inspection of the above image further indicates that the bright duo trail a rope of stars pointing to the spiral galaxy on the far right. Most assuredly, the pictured galaxies of Hickson Compact Group 31 will pass through and destroy each other, millions of stars will form and explode, and thousands of nebula will form and dissipate before the dust settles and the final galaxy emerges about one billion years from now. The above image is a composite of images taken in infrared light by the Spitzer Space Telescope, ultraviolet light by the GALEX space telescope, and visible light by the Hubble Space Telescope. Hickson Compact Group 31 spans about 150 thousand light years and lies about 150 million light years away toward the constellation of Eridanus.

说明:这些星系碰撞的结果将最终会形成一个椭圆星系吗?很有可能,但这个过程需要经过另一个数十亿年。上面的影像中显示的是,希克森31紧密星系团中数个矮星系正在慢慢融合。左上角两个较亮的星系正在发生碰撞,此时上方一个伸长的星系以一条异常的恒星桥连接着它们。仔细检查上面的影像,能进一步看出明亮的两个星系尾指向最右方的旋涡星系。最有可能的是,被拍摄到的希克森31紧密星系团内的星系将相互通过,并相互破坏,将有数百万颗恒星形成并且发生爆炸,成千上万个星云即将形成并且在尘埃落定前消散,经过大约10万年左右的时间,最终的星系将会出现。上面的影像是一张合成影像,合成了由斯皮策太空望远镜红外光GALEX太空望远镜紫外光、以及哈勃太空望远镜可见光拍摄的数据。希克森31紧密星系团覆盖大约15光年,距离我们大约1.5亿光年远,位于波江座内。

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-23 23:19 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2010-2-24 19:15 编辑

2010 February 23

Exceptional Rocket Waves Destroy Sun Dog
Credit & Copyright: George C. Privon (U. Virginia)
Explanation: What created those rocket waves, and why did they destroy that sun dog? Close inspection of the above image shows not only a rocket rising near the center, but unusual air ripples around it and a colorful sundog to the far right. The rocket, carrying the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), lifted off two weeks ago from Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA into a cold blue sky. The SDO is designed to observe the Sun continuously over the next several years, exploring the Sun's atmosphere at high resolution and fast time scales. The air ripples -- seen about one minute after launch -- were unexpected, as was the sudden disappearance of the sundog after the ripples passed. Noticed and recorded by several onlookers, there has been much speculation about the origin of the ripples. An ongoing discussion about them can be joined here in APOD's discussion board the Asterisk. A leading hypothesis holds that the ripples resulted from a sonic boom created as the rocket broke the sound barrier, which then jumbled a thin layer of ice crystals that were aligned to create the sundog. Lingering questions include why other rocket launches don't produce air ripples as noticeable, and why the ripples appeared more prominent above the rocket. If you know of images of any other aircraft or spacecraft that have produced similar air ripples, please post them to the discussion thread -- they may be help create a better understanding of the effect.

说明:是什么造成了这些火箭冲击波,而且为什么它们会破坏幻日现象?仔细检查上面的影像,不仅仅看到的是影像中央附近升起的火箭,而且还有在它周围出现的异常气体波纹,以及最右侧的幻日。该枚火箭携带着太阳动力学天文台SDO),于2周前从美国佛罗里达州卡纳维拉尔角升空。SDO被设计用来在今后数年时间里不间断观测太阳,以高分辨率和快时标探测太阳大气层。空气波纹在发射后一分钟后出现,令人意想不到的是,当波纹传播时幻日现象突然消失了。据数名旁观者留意反馈,这起事件引起了对波纹起源的思索。在APOD的讨论版块上也正在进行一次相关的讨论。主要的解释是波纹是火箭突破了音障形成了一次音爆,这就扰乱了原本规则排列形成幻日的稀薄冰晶。剩下的问题包括为什么其它火箭发射没有形成可见的空气波纹,为什么波纹看上去在火箭上方更明显。如果你知道有任何其它飞船或者航天飞机形成了类似空气波纹的影像,请将它们张贴到在线讨论中,它们可能会帮助更好地理解该现象。

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-24 19:16 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 24

Astronaut Installs Panoramic Space Window
Credit: ISS Expedition 22 Crew, Shuttle Endeavour STS-130 Crew, NASA
Explanation: This space job was almost complete. Floating just below the International Space Station, astronaut Nicholas Patrick put some finishing touches on the newly installed cupola space windows last week. Patrick was a mission specialist onboard the recently completed space shuttle Endeavor's STS-130 mission to the ISS. Pictured, Patrick floats near the outermost of seven windows on the new cupola of the just-installed Tranquility module. Patrick hovers about 340 kilometers over the Earth's surface, well in front of the blue sky, blue water, and white clouds pictured far in the background. In the above image, covers on windows three and four were in place and clearly labelled. Images from inside the ISS's new panoramic cupola are now available.

说明:此次太空任务几近完成。上周,漂浮在国际空间站下方的宇航员Nicholas Patrick正在对新安装的圆顶太空窗进行一些收尾工作Patrick是一名任务专家,完成了此次奋进号航天飞机飞往国际空间站代号为STS-130的任务。上面的影像中,Patrick漂浮在拥有7个窗口圆顶的最外侧,这也是新安装在宁静舱上的一个圆顶Patrick漂浮在地球上空大约340万公里的高空,正好位于蓝色天空的前方,蓝色海水,白色的云朵出现在遥远的背景中。在上面这张影像中,可以看到清晰标注的3号,4号窗口。如今已经从国际空间站新安装的全景圆顶内拍摄到影像

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-25 16:35 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 25

Edge-on Spiral Galaxy NGC 891
Credit & Copyright: Bob Franke
Explanation: This beautiful cosmic portrait features NGC 891. The spiral galaxy spans about 100 thousand light-years and is seen almost exactly edge-on from our perspective. In fact, about 30 million light-years distant in the constellation Andromeda, NGC 891 looks a lot like our Milky Way. At first glance, it has a flat, thin, galactic disk and a central bulge cut along the middle by regions of dark obscuring dust. Also apparent in NGC 891's ege-on presentation are filaments of dust that extend hundreds of light-years above and below the center line. The dust has likely been blown out of the disk by supernova explosions or intense star formation activity. Faint neighboring galaxies can also been seen near this galaxy's disk.

说明:这美丽的宇宙画面就是NGC891的特写。该旋涡星系覆盖大约10万光年,从我们的视角看去几乎只看到星系的侧面。事实上,NGC891位于仙女座内,距离我们大约3,000万光年远,与我们银河系更为相似。第一眼看去,它是一个扁平细薄的银河盘面,中央的隆起被黑暗的模糊尘埃从中间分隔开来。在NGC891的外观上还可以看到侧面特征,灯丝状尘埃从星系的两侧向外延伸出了成百上千光年远。尘埃可能是由超新星爆发或者致密的恒星形成区域从盘面内吹出。在这个星系盘面附近还可以看到昏暗的邻近星系。


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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-26 15:30 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 26

Chasing Carina
Credit & Copyright: Dieter Willasch
Explanation: A jewel of the southern sky, the Great Carina Nebula, aka NGC 3372, spans over 300 light-years. Near the upper right of this expansive skycape, it is much larger than the more northerly Orion Nebula. In fact, the Carina Nebula is one of our galaxy's largest star-forming regions and home to young, extremely massive stars, including the still enigmatic variable Eta Carinae, a star with well over 100 times the mass of the Sun. Nebulae near the center of the 10 degree wide field include NGC 3576 and NGC 3603. Near center at the top of the frame is open star cluster NGC 3532, the Wishing Well Cluster. More compact, NGC 3766, the Pearl Cluster, can be spotted at the left. Anchoring the lower left of the cosmic canvas is another large star-forming region, IC 2948 with embedded star cluster IC 2944. That region is popularly known as the Running Chicken Nebula.

说明:作为南方天空中的宝石,巨大的船底座星云NGC3372)在天空中的大小超过了300光年。它位于这片广阔天空景象的右上方,比位于北方天空中的猎户座星云大。事实上,船底座星云也是银河系最大恒星诞生区域的一部分,也是年轻、极大质量恒星的家园,其中含有仍处于神秘变换中的船底座η星,其质量是太阳质量的100多倍。在这片10度宽的星场中央,其中星云包括NGC3576NGC3603。在影像顶部附近出现的是疏散星团NGC3532,也就是许愿井星团。在影像的左侧还可以看到珍珠星团NGC3766。出现在影像左下方的是另一个大型的恒星形成区域,IC2948以及内埋星团IC2944。这个区域通常被称为奔跑中的小鸡星云

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-27 13:43 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 27

Dawn's Endeavour
Credit & Copyright: Malcolm Park
Explanation: On February 21st, the Space Shuttle Endeavour and the International Space Station (ISS) flew through the sky near dawn over Whitby, Ontario, Canada. Along with star trails, both were captured in this single time exposure. Glinting in sunlight 350 kilometers above the Earth, Endeavour slightly preceeded the ISS arcing over the horizon. But the brighter trail and the brighter flare belongs to the space station just visted by Endeavour. Near the completion of the STS-130 mission, hours later Endeavour made a night landing at Kennedy Space Center.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-02-28 21:32 | 显示全部楼层
2010 February 28

Pauli Exclusion Principle: Why You Don't Implode
Credit & Copyright: Andrew Truscott & Randall Hulet (Rice U.)
Explanation: Why doesn't matter just bunch up? The same principle that keeps neutron stars and white dwarf stars from imploding also keeps people from imploding and makes normal matter mostly empty space. The observed reason is known as the Pauli Exclusion Principle. The principle states that identical fermions -- one type of fundamental matter -- cannot be in the same place at the same time and with the same orientation. The other type of matter, bosons, do not have this property, as demonstrated clearly by recently created Bose-Einstein condensates. Earlier this decade, the Pauli Exclusion Principle was demonstrated graphically in the above picture of clouds of two isotopes of lithium -- the left cloud composed of bosons while the right cloud is composed of fermions. As temperature drops, the bosons bunch together, while the fermions better keep their distance. The reason why the Pauli Exclusion Principle is true and the physical limits of the principle are still unknown.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-01 18:11 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2010-3-2 16:10 编辑

2010 March 1

Slope Streaks in Acheron Fossae on Mars
Credit: HiRISE, MRO, LPL (U. Arizona), NASA
Explanation: What creates these picturesque dark streaks on Mars? No one knows for sure. A leading hypothesis is that streaks like these are caused by fine grained sand sliding down the banks of troughs and craters. Pictured above, dark sand appears to have flowed hundreds of meters down the slopes of Acheron Fossae. The sand appears to flow like a liquid around boulders, and, for some reason, lightens significantly over time. This sand flow process is one of several which can rapidly change the surface of Mars, with other processes including dust devils, dust storms, and the freezing and melting of areas of ice. The above image was taken by the HiRise camera on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter which has been orbiting Mars since 2006. Acheron Fossae is a 700 kilometer long trough in the Diacria quadrangle of Mars.

说明:是什么造成了火星上这些独特的条纹?没有人确切的知道。目前一种主要的假说就是,这些条纹是由细微的沙粒从山谷或者环形山滑落而成。上面的影像里,黑暗的沙子看上去就像从Acheron Fossae的斜坡上向下蔓延了数百米远。沙子看上去像液体一样在大石旁流淌一样,基于某些原因随着时间的流逝,特征也在显著的变淡。这种沙瀑是能迅速改变火星表面的方式之一,其它的过程包括沙尘暴沙暴,以及冰区的冻结以及融化过程。上面的影像是由安装在火星资源卫星上HiRise相机拍摄,从2006年开始它就已经绕火星飞行了。Acheron Fossae位于火星Diacria quadrangle区域内,是一条长达700公里长的沟槽

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-02 16:08 | 显示全部楼层
2010 March 2

M78 and Reflecting Dust Clouds in Orion
Credit & Copyright: Ignacio de la Cueva Torregrosa
Explanation: An eerie blue glow and ominous columns of dark dust highlight M78 and other bright reflection nebula in the constellation of Orion. The dark filamentary dust not only absorbs light, but also reflects the light of several bright blue stars that formed recently in the nebula. Of the two reflection nebulas pictured above, the more famous nebula is M78, in the image center, while NGC 2071 can be seen to its lower left. The same type of scattering that colors the daytime sky further enhances the blue color. M78 is about five light-years across and visible through a small telescope. M78 appears above only as it was 1600 years ago, however, because that is how long it takes light to go from there to here. M78 belongs to the larger Orion Molecular Cloud Complex that contains the Great Nebula in Orion and the Horsehead Nebula.

说明:诡异的蓝色光芒以及不祥的黑色尘埃柱突显了位于猎户座内的M78和其他明亮反射星云。黑暗的灯丝状尘埃不仅仅吸收光芒,也同样反射了最近在星云内形成的明亮蓝色恒星发出的光。在上面影像中的两个反射星云中,较为著名的是位于影像中央的M78,而另一个星云NGC2071位于影像的左下方。这散射的效应就跟白天天空中变蓝一样。M78大约有5光年宽,用小望远镜就能看到。如上图所示M781600年前样子,因为它发出的光需要经过1600年才能到达地球。M78属于猎户座复杂大分子云的一部分,该分子与还包括猎户座大星云马头星云

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-04 18:22 | 显示全部楼层
2010 March 3

The International Space Station from Above
Credit: STS-130 Crew, NASA
Explanation: The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest human-made object ever to orbit the Earth. The ISS is so large that it can be seen drifting overhead with the unaided eye, and is frequently imaged from the ground in picturesque fashion. Last month, the station was visited again by space shuttle, which resupplied the station and added a new module. The ISS is currently operated by the Expedition 22 crew, now consisting five astronauts including two supplied by USA's NASA, two by Russia's RKA, and one by Japan's JAXA. After departing the ISS, the crew of the space shuttle Endeavour captured the above spectacular vista of the orbiting space city high above the clouds, waters, and lands of Earth. Visible components include modules, trusses, and expansive solar arrays that gather sunlight that is turned into needed electricity.
说明国际空间站ISS)是地球轨道上空最大的人造天体。国际空间站如此巨大,以至于肉都能看到它从我们的头顶飘过,并且经常能在地面上以独特的视角拍摄到影像。上月,航天飞机再次造访空间站,对空间站进行补给并运送一个新的舱体国际空间站如今正由22远征队操控,由5名宇航员组成,其中有两名属于美国宇航局,两名来自俄罗斯航天局,一名来自日本的宇宙航空开发机构。在离开国际空间站之后,奋进号航天飞机成员拍摄到了上面这张壮观的影像,影像中还出现了地球的陆地,海水,以及云层。可以看到国际空间站的不同部件包括空间舱构架以及用来吸收太阳光产生电力太阳能电池板
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-04 18:23 | 显示全部楼层
2010 March 4

NGC 4565: Galaxy on Edge
Image Credit & Copyright: Acquisition - Torsten Grossmann, Processing - Dietmar Hager
Explanation: Magnificent spiral galaxy NGC 4565 is viewed edge-on from planet Earth. Also known as the Needle Galaxy for its narrow profile, bright NGC 4565 is a stop on many telescopic tours of the northern sky, in the faint but well-groomed constellation Coma Berenices. This sharp, colorful image reveals the galaxy's bulging central core cut by obscuring dust lanes that lace NGC 4565's thin galactic plane. An assortment of other galaxies are included in the pretty field of view. Neighboring galaxy NGC 4562 is at the upper right. NGC 4565 itself lies about 40 million light-years distant, spanning some 100,000 light-years. Easily spotted with small telescopes, sky enthusiasts consider NGC 4565 to be a prominent celestial masterpiece Messier missed.

说明:壮观的旋涡星系NGC4546侧向对着地球。因为其狭长的侧面所以被称为指针星系,明亮的NGC4546是北半球许多望远镜驻足观测的目的地,位于昏暗而又清晰的后发座内。这张清晰而又多彩的影像,揭示了星系膨胀的中央星系核,而星系核被模糊地尘埃带分隔开来,并点缀着NGC4546稀薄的星系盘。其它种类的星系也同样出现在这张较好的视场中。临近星系NGC4562位于影像的右上方。NGC4546距离我们大约4,000光年远,大小约10万光年。用小望远镜就能看到该星系,天文爱好者认为NGC4546是著名的梅西耶星云星团表中遗漏的星系。

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-05 19:36 | 显示全部楼层
2010 March 5

Deep Auriga
Image Credit & Copyright: Tunç Tezel (TWAN)
Explanation: The plane of our Milky Way Galaxy runs right through Auriga, the Charioteer. A good part of the ancient northern constellation's rich collection of nebulae and star clusters is featured in this expansive, 10 degree wide skyscape. Bright star Elnath lies near the bottom right, linking Auriga to another constellation, Taurus, the Bull. Three open star clusters, Charles Messier's M36, M37, and M38 line up in the dense star field above and left of Elnath, familiar to many binocular-equiped skygazers. But the deep exposure also brings out the reddish emission nebulae of star-forming regions IC 405, IC 410, and IC 417. E. E. Barnard's dark nebulae B34 and B226 just stand out against a brighter background. For help identifying even more of Auriga's deep sky highlights, put your cursor over the image.

说明:我们银河系的盘面正好穿过御夫座。在这张涵盖10度天区的广阔影像中,显示了这个古代北方星座部分区域内星云、星团富集的画面。明亮的五车五位于影像底部的右侧,连接着御夫座和金牛座。三个疏散星团,也就是查尔斯梅西耶星云星团表内的M36,M37M38,排列在五车五上方的浓密的星场中,经常用双筒望远镜观测的天文爱好者对此非常熟悉。而且在这张深空曝光影像里还拍摄到了泛红色发射星云,恒星形成区域IC405,IC410以及IC417E.E.巴纳德的黑暗星云B34B226正对着更为明亮的背景。为了帮助分辨御夫座内更多的深空天体,请将你的鼠标放在影像上。

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-06 18:29 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2010-3-9 16:58 编辑

2010 March 6

Pillar at Sunset
Image Credit & Copyright: David Alquist
Explanation: Reddened light from the setting Sun illuminates the cloud banks hugging this snowy, rugged terrain. Inspiring a moment of quiet contemplation, the sunset scene included a remarkable pillar of light that seemed to connect the clouds in the sky with the mountains below. Known as a Sun pillar, the luminous column was produced by sunlight reflecting from flat, six-sided ice crystals formed high in the cold atmosphere and fluttering toward the ground. Last Monday, astronomers watched this Sun pillar slowly fade, as the twilight deepened and clearing, dark skies came to Mt. Jelm and the Wyoming Infrared Observatory.

说明:落日发出的泛红色光芒照亮了云堤,紧贴着白雪覆盖的崎岖山脊。平静端详这一画面就能发现,日落景色中还包括一道显著的光柱,似乎连接着天空中的云朵和下面的山峰。这道光柱被称为日柱,明亮的光柱是太阳光经高空寒冷大气层中的扁平六边形冰晶折射而成,而冰晶的折射正好面对地面。上周一,天文学家观测到这一日柱慢慢变淡,当黄昏时分变得强烈而又清晰,同时杰姆山和怀俄明州红外天文台也将迎来夜空。

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-07 17:33 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2010-3-9 16:56 编辑

2010 March 7

Spirit Rover at Engineering Flats on Mars
Credit: Mars Exploration Rover Mission, JPL, NASA
Explanation: Is it art? If so, the paintbrush was the Spirit robotic rover, the canvas was the soil on Mars, and the artists were the scientists and engineers of the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. This panoramic picture, created in 2004 and shown above compressed horizontally, was mostly unintentional -- the MERS team was primarily instructing Spirit to investigate rocks in and around Hank's Hollow in a location called Engineering Flats on Mars. After creating the ground display with its treads, the Spirit rover was instructed to photograph the area along with itself in shadow. In 2010 as winter approaches in northern Mars, Spirit, still mired in sand, has been placed in an energy saving "hibernating" mode until spring arrives and more direct sunlight might be used to power the robotic explorer.

说明:这是艺术?如果是这样的话,画笔就是勇气号探测器,画布就是火星土壤,而艺术家就是火星探测器使命的科学家和工程师们。这张全景影像拍摄于2004年,显示了水平压缩了的影像,照片的产生几乎是无意识的,火星探测使命小组主要是指导勇气号探测汉克低洼地区的岩石,该地区被称为火星上的工程台地。在火星表面产生轮痕后,勇气号也为周围拍摄了照片,同时也拍到它自已的黑色剪影 2010年,当冬季来到火星北半球时,勇气号依旧陷在泥沙中,并处于节能状态“冬眠”中,直到春天来临,到时候将有更多的直射阳光被探测器用来产生电力。

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-08 16:43 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2010-3-9 16:55 编辑

2010 March 8

Mars Over the Allalinhorn
Credit & Copright: Till Credner (AlltheSky.com)
Explanation: What's that bright object in the sky? A common question with answers that vary by time and season, the quick answer just after sunset in middle of last month, from the norther hemisphere, was Mars. The above picturesque panorama, taken during a ski trip from the Alps in Switzerland, shows not only Mars, but much more. Pine trees line the foreground, while numerous slopes leading up to the snow covered Allalinhorn mountain are visible in the distance. Stars dot the background, with the Beehive star cluster (M44) visible just below and to the left of Mars, while stars Castor and Pollux peak through the tree tops to the Mars' upper right. Mars will remain bright and in the constellation of the Crab (Cancer) until mid-May.
说明:天空中明亮的天体是什么?这个问题的答案会随着时间和季节的不同而变化,对于北半球来说,上个月中旬日落之后出现的那颗就是火星。上面这张全景影像拍摄于去瑞士阿尔卑斯山滑雪期间,其中不仅显示了火星,还有很多别的天体。松树位于前景中,而在远处可以看到白雪覆盖的阿尔卑斯山顶。星星点缀着背景,蜂巢星团M44)就位于火星的左下方,而恒星北河二北河三位于火星右上方的树梢上。火星将在巨蟹座内一直保持明亮,直到五月中旬。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-09 16:54 | 显示全部楼层
2010 March 9

Galaxies Beyond the Heart: Maffei 1 and 2
Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, WISE Team
Explanation: The two galaxies on the far left were unknown until 1968. Although they would have appeared as two of the brighter galaxies on the night sky, the opaque dust of the central band of our Milky Way Galaxy had obscured them from being seen in visible light. The above image in infrared light taken by the recently launched Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), however, finds these galaxies in great detail far behind -- but seemingly next to -- the photogenic Heart nebula (IC 1805). The spiral galaxy near the top is the easiest to spot and is known as Maffei 2. Just below and to its right is fuzzy-looking Maffei 1, the closest giant elliptical galaxy to Earth. The above false-colored image spans three full moons from top to bottom. The Maffei galaxies each span about 15,000 light years across and lie about 10 million light years away toward the constellation of the Queen of Ethiopia (Cassiopeia). On the image right, stars, gaseous filaments, and warm dust highlight a detailed infrared view of the Heart nebula.

说明:直到1968年才发现影像最左侧的两个星系。尽管在夜空中它们是较为明亮的两个星系,但是在可见光下我们银河系中央尘埃带遮挡住了它们。上面这张红外影像由最近发射的广域红外探测器拍摄(WISE,发现了这些星系的详细特征,并且临近心脏星云IC1805)。顶部附近的旋涡星系是最容易辨别的,被称为Maffei2。处于它右下方的是模糊的Maffei1,它也是距离地球最近的巨型椭圆星系。上面的这张假色影像从顶部到底部有3满月的大小。Maffei星系每一个覆盖约1.5玩光年,距离我们约1,000光年,位于仙后座内。影像右侧的心脏星云内,恒星、绚丽的暗纹以及温暖的尘埃突出了这张红外影像的细节特征。

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-10 15:35 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2010-3-11 13:16 编辑

2010 March 10

Saturn's Moon Helene from Cassini
Credit: NASA/JPL/SSI
Explanation: What's happening on the surface of Saturn's moon Helene? The moon was imaged in unprecedented detail last week as the robotic Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn swooped to within two Earth diameters of the diminutive moon. Although conventional craters and hills appear, the above raw and unprocessed image also shows terrain that appears unusually smooth and streaked. Planetary astronomers will be inspecting these detailed images of Helene to glean clues about the origin and evolution of the 30-km across floating iceberg. Helene is also unusual because it circles Saturn just ahead of the large moon Dione, making it one of only four known moons to occupy a gravitational well known as a stable Lagrange point.

说明:土卫十二的表面发生了什么?上周卡西尼飞船以两倍地球直径的距离飞越了这颗小型卫星,并拍摄下了该卫星空前详细的影像。尽管有连续的陨石坑和山丘出现,但是上面这张未经处理的粗糙影像显示了有山脊存在,看上去表面异常的平滑、并且还有斑纹存在。行星天文学家们将检查这张清晰的土卫十二影像,来寻找这颗直径仅有30公里卫星的起源和演变线索。土卫十二不同寻常,因为它正好位于较大卫星-土卫四的前方绕土星运行,它也是已知4颗获得稳定的拉格朗日引力点的卫星之一。

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-11 13:16 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2010-3-12 20:03 编辑

2010 March 11

Yukon Aurora with Star Trails
Image Credit & Copyright: Yuichi Takasaka / TWAN / www.blue-moon.ca
Explanation: Fixed to a tripod, a camera can record graceful trails traced by stars as planet Earth rotates on its axis. But at high latitudes during March and April, it can also capture an aurora shimmering in the night. In fact, the weeks surrounding the equinox, in both spring and fall, offer a favorable season for aurora hunters. The possibilities are demonstrated in this beautiful moonlit vista from northwestern Canadian territory the Yukon. It was taken during the early morning of March 1, off the Klondike Highway about 60 kilometers south of Dawson City. To compose the picture, many short exposures were digitally combined to follow the concentric star trail arcs while including the greenish auroral curtains also known as the northern lights.

说明:将一架相机固定在三角架上,就能记录下优美的星迹,因为地球以自己的轴转动,天空中的星星就会留下自己的轨迹。但是,在34月份的高纬度地区,在夜晚还能拍摄到极光闪耀的现象。事实上,在昼夜平分点前后的数周时间里,春季或者秋季,对于极光捕捉者来说是最好的时节。影像拍摄于31日凌晨,地点位于道森市南约60公里克朗代克高速公路旁。为了合成这张照片,许多短时间曝光被用到,其中有同心圆星迹以及还有发出绿色光芒的北极光

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-12 20:02 | 显示全部楼层
2010 March 12

JWST: Mirrors and Masked Men
Image Courtesy: Ball Aerospace
Explanation: Who are these masked men? Technicians from Ball Aerospace and NASA at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray and Cryogenic Facility, of course, testing primary mirror segments of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Scheduled for launch in 2014, JWST will be optimized for the infrared exploration of the early Universe, utilizing a primary mirror 21.3 feet across, composed of 18 hexagonal segments. Here, a group of JWST mirror segments are being prepared for tests to assure they meet the exacting mission requirements. The technicians' suits and masks help prevent contamination of the mirror surfaces. At the Marshall X-ray and Cryogenic Facility, the mirrors are tested in the large circular chamber after evacuating the air and cooling the chamber to -400 degrees Fahrenheit (only 60 degrees above absolute zero). The extremely low pressure and temperature simulate the JWST mirror operating environment in space. JWST mirror segment testing will continue for the next 18 months.

说明:这些面具男是谁?这是来自巴尔航天公司以及NASA马歇尔太空飞行中心X射线以及低温研究室的工作人员,当然他们正在测试詹姆斯韦伯太空望远镜JWST)的主镜部分JWST预计将在2014年发射,将充分利用红外线对早期宇宙进行探索,主要利用的一面主镜有21.3英尺宽,由18块六边形部件组成。在这里,一块JWST组合镜面将被用来测试是否严格符合任务的要求。技术人员的服装和面具是用来避免污染镜面。在马歇尔X射线和低温研究室,镜子被安放于巨大的圆形舱体内进行测试,在测试之前已将舱体内空气抽掉,温度降低至-400华摄氏度(仅仅高于绝对零点60度)。极低的压力和温度模拟了JWST镜面位于太空中的操作环境。JWST镜面部分的测试还将持续18个月。

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-13 17:54 | 显示全部楼层
2010 March 13

Centaurus A
Image Credit & Copyright: Tim Carruthers
Explanation: Only 11 million light-years away, Centaurus A is the closest active galaxy to planet Earth. Spanning over 60,000 light-years, the peculiar elliptical galaxy, also known as NGC 5128, is featured in this sharp color image. Centaurus A is apparently the result of a collision of two otherwise normal galaxies resulting in a fantastic jumble of star clusters and imposing dark dust lanes. Near the galaxy's center, left over cosmic debris is steadily being consumed by a central black hole with a billion times the mass of the Sun. As in other active galaxies, that process likely generates the radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray energy radiated by Centaurus A.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-14 13:06 | 显示全部楼层
2010 March 14

Binary Black Hole in 3C 75
Credit: X-Ray: NASA / CXC / D. Hudson, T. Reiprich et al. (AIfA);
Radio: NRAO / VLA/ NRL
Explanation: What's happening in the middle of this massive galaxy? There, two bright sources at the center of this composite x-ray (blue)/radio (pink) image are thought to be co-orbiting supermassive black holes powering the giant radio source 3C 75. Surrounded by multimillion degree x-ray emitting gas, and blasting out jets of relativistic particles the supermassive black holes are separated by 25,000 light-years. At the cores of two merging galaxies in the Abell 400 galaxy cluster they are some 300 million light-years away. Astronomers conclude that these two supermassive black holes are bound together by gravity in a binary system in part because the jets' consistent swept back appearance is most likely due to their common motion as they speed through the hot cluster gas at 1200 kilometers per second. Such spectacular cosmic mergers are thought to be common in crowded galaxy cluster environments in the distant universe. In their final stages the mergers are expected to be intense sources of gravitational waves.
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-15 15:58 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2010-3-16 16:02 编辑

2010 March 15

Illuminated Cloud Trails Above Greece
Credit & Copyright: Chris Kotsiopoulos
Explanation: It may appear to be day, but it's night. Those wondrous orange streaks may appear to be rays from the setting Sun, but they're actually thin clouds illuminated by the Moon as they quickly streaked toward the distant horizon. The thick clouds on the far left may appear to have many layers, but actually they are just a few simple clouds captured on numerous separate exposures. What is surely true, though, is that the above time lapse image sequence was taken over two hours, about two weeks ago, in Sounio, Greece. Also, those really are star trails swirling around the north star Polaris on the upper right of the image. But what about the building in the foreground? It may appear to be a famous ancient structure, but it's actually a small deserted church built only last century.
说明:这看上去出现在白天,但实际上画面发生在晚上。这些绚丽的橘黄色条纹看上去就像是日落时分太阳发出的光线,但是它们实际上是被月球照亮了的薄云,而这些薄云正向远处地平线飞去。而影像最左侧的厚厚云层看上去有许多层,但实际上它们仅仅是一些单层云朵罢了,原因是被许多单张曝光影像拍摄到。什么才是真实的呢?上面这张延迟影像序列是两周前经过2个多小时拍摄到的,地点位于希腊桑尼奥。同样,这些星迹正绕影像右上方的北极星旋转。但是影像前方的建筑是什么?看上去是一个非常有名的古代建筑结构,但实际上仅仅是上世纪建造的小教堂,如今已遭废弃。
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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-16 16:01 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2010-3-17 19:19 编辑

2010 March 16

Detailed View of a Solar Eclipse Corona
Credit & Copyright: Miloslav Druckmüller (Brno University of Technology), Martin Dietzel, Peter Aniol, Vojtech Rušin
Explanation: Only in the fleeting darkness of a total solar eclipse is the light of the solar corona easily visible. Normally overwhelmed by the bright solar disk, the expansive corona, the sun's outer atmosphere, is an alluring sight. But the subtle details and extreme ranges in the corona's brightness, although discernible to the eye, are notoriously difficult to photograph. Pictured above, however, using multiple images and digital processing, is a detailed image of the Sun's corona taken during the 2008 August total solar eclipse from Mongolia. Clearly visible are intricate layers and glowing caustics of an ever changing mixture of hot gas and magnetic fields. Bright looping prominences appear pink just above the Sun's limb. The next total solar eclipse will be in July but will only be visible in a thin swath of Earth crossing the southern Pacific Ocean and South America.

说明:仅在日全食的短暂黑暗里才能清晰的看到日冕发出的光线。正常情况下,日冕淹没在极度明亮的太阳盘面中,但实际上,膨胀的日冕也就是太阳的外层大气是一道迷人的风景。但是精致的细节以及极广的范围在肉眼下都能分辨出来,但是很难拍摄到。然而,上面的影像是利用多张影像经过数字处理而得,该太阳日冕影像拍摄于蒙古20088月日全食期间。可以清晰的看到不断变化的炽热气体和磁场,形成的复杂的层状结构以及炽热的焦散线。明亮的环状日珥看上去显粉色,突出在太阳盘面上。下一次日全食将发生在今年7月,仅只有一条狭长的路径穿过了南太平洋南美洲地区,只有那里才可以看到。

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-17 19:18 | 显示全部楼层
2010 March 17

Phobos from Mars Express
Credit: G. Neukum (FU Berlin) et al., Mars Express, DLR, ESA
Explanation: Why is this small object orbiting Mars? The origin of Phobos, the larger of the two moons orbiting Mars, remains unknown. Phobos and Deimos appear very similar to C-type asteroids, yet gravitationally capturing such asteroids, circularizing their orbits, and dragging them into Mars' equatorial plane seems unlikely. Pictured above is Phobos as it appeared during last week's flyby of ESA's Mars Express, a robotic spacecraft that began orbiting Mars in 2003. Visible in great detail is Phobos' irregular shape, strangely dark terrain, numerous unusual grooves, and a spectacular chain of craters crossing the image center. Phobos spans only about 25 kilometers in length and does not having enough gravity to compress it into a ball. Phobos orbits so close to Mars that sometime in the next 20 million years, tidal deceleration will break up the rubble moon into a ring whose pieces will slowly spiral down and crash onto the red planet. The Russian mission Phobos-Grunt is scheduled to launch and land on Phobos next year.

说明:为什么这颗小天体绕火星运行?火卫一的来源仍然未知,也是两颗绕行卫星中较大的那颗。火卫一火卫二看上去非常近似于C类小行星,而这样围绕着运行的小行星受到引力拖拽,强迫它们进入火星赤道面似乎又不太可能。上面的影像欧空局发射的火星快车在上周飞越火卫一时拍摄到的,从2003年开始火星快车就已开始绕火星飞行。在这张非常详细的影像中可以看到火卫一的不规则形状,奇怪的黑色山脊,无数不规则的峡谷,以及一道穿过影像中央的壮观陨坑链。火卫一仅有25公里长,并没有足够的引力将自己压缩成一个球体。火卫一的轨道距离火星太近,再过2,000万年以后,潮汐拉扯力将这颗巨石状卫星撕裂成火星环,而那些碎片将慢慢旋流下来,并坠入这颗红色行星的表面。俄罗斯火卫一探测器预计将在明年发射,并在火卫一上着陆

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-19 18:38 | 显示全部楼层
2010 March 18

Fermi Catalogs the Gamma-ray Sky
Credit: NASA, DOE, International Fermi LAT Collaboration
Explanation: What shines in the gamma-ray sky? The most complete answer yet to that question is offered by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's first all-sky catalog. Fermi's sources of cosmic gamma-rays feature nature's most energetic particle accelerators, ultimately producing 100 MeV to 100 GeV photons, photons with more than 50 million to 50 billion times the energy of visible light. Distilled from 11 months of sky survey data using Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT), the 1,451 cataloged sources include energetic star burst galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) far beyond the Milky Way. But within our own galaxy are many pulsars (PSR) and pulsar wind nebulae (PWN), supernova remnants (SNR), x-ray binary stars (HXB) and micro-quasars (MQO). Fermi's all sky map is shown centered on the Milky Way with the diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Galactic plane running horizontally through the frame. To locate the cataloged gamma-ray sources, just slide your cursor over the map. For now, 630 of the sources cataloged at gamma-ray energies remain otherwise unidentified, not associated with sources detected at lower energies.

说明:在伽马射线天空下是什么在闪耀?迄今为止对此最全面的回答就由费尔米伽马射线太空望远镜的首张全天目录表显示。费尔米的宇宙伽马射线源显示了自然界中最高能粒子,最终产生100Mev100GeV量级的光子,光子的能量比可见光子能量高出5,000万倍到500亿倍。这些都是从费尔米大视野望远镜利用11个月拍摄到的巡天数据抽取而来,1451个被编录的宇宙员包括高能星爆星系,以及距离银河系非常遥远的高能星系核(AGN)。但是在我们银河系内有许多脉冲星PSR)以及脉冲风星云(PWN),超新星遗迹SNR),X射线双子星HXB)以及微类星体MQO)。费尔米全天图以银河系为主题,银河系盘面发出的弥漫伽马射线水平贯穿了整张影像。为了确定已编录的伽马射线源,将你的鼠标放在上面的影像上就能显现出来。迄今为止还有630个编录在内的射线源还没有被确认,但是与较低能量检测到的射线源无关。

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-19 18:38 | 显示全部楼层
2010 March 19

The Seagull and the Duck
Image Credit & Copyright: Rogelio Bernal Andreo (Deep Sky Colors)
Explanation: Seen as a seagull and a duck, these nebulae are not the only cosmic clouds to evoke images of flight. But both are winging their way across this broad celestial landscape, spanning almost 7 degrees across planet Earth's night sky toward the constellation Canis Major. The expansive Seagull (upper left) is itself composed of two major cataloged emission nebulae. Brighter NGC 2327 forms the head with the more diffuse IC 2177 as the wings and body. Impressively, the Seagull's wingspan would correspond to about 250 light-years at an estimated distance of 3,800 light-years. At the lower right, the Duck appears much more compact and would span only about 50 light-years given its 15,000 light-year distance estimate. Blown by energetic winds from an extremely massive, hot star near its center, the Duck nebula is cataloged as NGC 2359. Of course, the Duck's thick body and winged appendages also lend it a more dramatic popular moniker -- Thor's Helmet.

说明:这两个星云看上去就像一只海鸥和一只鸭子,但不是宇宙星云中唯一想飞走的影像。但是两个星云都位于这张宽广的天空影像中,影像在地球夜空中覆盖了约7度,位于大犬座内。巨大的海鸥(左上)星云本身由两个主要的发射星云组成。较为明亮的NGC2327形成了头部,较为模糊的IC2177形成了海鸥的翅膀和身体。令人印象深刻的是,海鸥的翅膀覆盖大约有250光年长,估计距离我们约3,800光年。右下方的是鸭子星云,看上去更为紧凑,距离我们大约1.5万光年远,在这个估计距离上,星云大约覆盖50光年宽。鸭子星云是由从其中央一颗极大质量炽热恒星吹出的高能恒星风形成,被编录为NGC2359。当然,鸭子的身体和附着的翅膀还让它拥有一个更为有名的绰号雷神的头盔

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 楼主| 发表于 2010-03-21 11:21 | 显示全部楼层
2010 March 20

Zodiacal Light Vs. Milky Way
Image Credit & Copyright: Daniel López
Explanation: Ghostly Zodiacal light, featured near the center of this remarkable panorama, is produced as sunlight is scattered by dust in the Solar System's ecliptic plane. In the weeks surrounding the March equinox (today at 1732 UT) Zodiacal light is more prominent after sunset in the northern hemisphere, and before sunrise in the south, when the ecliptic makes a steep angle with the horizon. In the picture, the narrow triangle of Zodiacal light extends above the western horizon and seems to end at the lovely Pleiades star cluster. Arcing above the Pleiades are stars and nebulae along the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy. Recorded on March 10 from Teide National Park on the island of Tenerife, the vista is composed of 4 separate pictures spanning over 180 degrees.
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