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罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

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发表于 2018-3-17 22:24 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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Whichwas more technologically advanced, the Roman Empire or Han China?
罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?
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Hoang Nghiem (严黄), Si Vis Pacem, Para Bellum
Updated Jan 25 · Featured on Quora'sTwitter
Thanks for the A2A Mike Jen, the short answer is that when viewedobjectively from afar, the Roman Empire (27 BC-1453 AD) along with its Easterncounterpart, the Han Dynasty of China (206 BC-220 AD) were roughly equal, withregards to their respective technological levels of attainment.
The Roman Empire at its heights in 117 AD, with a land area of 5million km^2:

谢邀,简而言之,客观长远的比较,从他们各自的科学水平上看,罗马帝国(27B-1453AD)与其东方版本-中国汉朝(206BC-220AD)大致相当。
罗马帝国在公元117年达到顶峰,幅员大约是500万平方公里:



Honestly speaking though, how is it possible to truly evenanswer this question? What defines “more” technologically advanced anyway? Thenumber of inventions? Probably not. Then there is the matter of potential:could the runner up society have defeated the current technological hegemon,should it have been convenient for them to? Perhaps. “Necessity is the motherof invention” after all according to the Ancient Greek Philosopher, Plato.
Then there is the matter of accuracy with regards to bias. Isthere a tendency to exaggerate a particular number in order to fulfil a hiddenagenda? After all, when comparing two great fathers of civilization together,things inevitably tend to get a little… heated let’s just say, at least frompersonal experience. It is a matter of cultural, civilizational and perhapseven national pride after all - completely understandable.
Territories of the Han Dynasty at its heights in 100 AD, with aland area of 6.5 million km^2:

不过老实说,要准确的回答这个问题是不太可能的?到底如何去定义“科技更先进”?发明的数量么?可能不行吧。那么问题来了:亚军是否能击败当前的霸主呢?他们是否有捷径?也许吧。古希腊哲学家柏拉图曾经曰过:“必要性是发明之母”
那么关于偏差的准确性就显得十分重要了。为了满足潜在的目的,是否有夸大某个特定数字的倾向?毕竟当我们比较两个伟大的文明祖师爷之时,讨论必将变得有些白热化,至少以我个人的经验,这关系到文化、文明、甚至会关系到民族自豪感,不过这些都能理解。
汉朝的版图巅峰是在公元100年,大约是650万平方公里:



Which is not to say that this author will be biased, evendespite the fact that he is of a Han Chinese ancestral composition, for heconsiders personal prejudices (of which he has many) to be a blatant insultagainst “good” history writing. So rest assured, he will certainly try (thekeyword here being “try”) to keep it impartial throughout the course of the entireanalysis.
Now, the way this works is simple, the authorwill attempt to compare both Chinese and Roman endeavors together, throughout avariety of different technological areas. He will however, leave it primarilyup to you; his audience to objectively decide based on the presented factsbelow, as to who was truly more advanced between the two civilizations in aparticular area.

这并不代表笔者带有偏见啊,虽然笔者的祖先是汉朝人,但不代表他会带有个人偏见(虽然笔者有很多)
那么好了,规则很简单,笔者将努力尝试透过不同技术领域将中国和罗马作一番比较。接着笔者会将答案留给你们自己来决定;至于两个文明在哪个特定领域更为先进,作为看官们,你们可以基于以下的贴出的事实客观地做出自己的决定,

But of course to keep things fair, as he does not completelytrust in his audience to do so, will also offer up his own verdicts on who wasprobably technologically “superior” with regards to the aforementioned matters,at the end of each comparison. Speaking of which, here are the areas oftechnology which shall be compared throughout the following analysis (some ofwhich do overlap it should be noted):
·        Metallurgy
·        Agriculture
·        Hydraulics and Mechanics
·        Medicine
·        Astronomy
·        Naval Technology
·        Aeronautics
·        Materials Engineering
·        Mathematics
·        Civil and Structural Engineering
·         Military Technology
With all that said and out of the way however, it’s time to finally beginthe comparison.
Warning:Long answer dead ahead of 18,900 words.

当然了,为了保证公平,由于笔者不完全信任他的观众,关于之前所述的问题,哪一方可能在科技上更为优越,在各项比较完成之后,笔者也将提出自己的个人判断。说到这里,以下是分析中应进行比较的技术领域(需要注意的是有些部分可能会有重叠)
·         冶金
·         农业
·         水利与机械
·         医药
·         天文
·         海军科技
·         航空学
·         材料工程
·         数学
·         土木与结构工程
·         军事科技

说了这么多,现在是时候开始比较了。
温馨提示:答案很长,长达18900字。

Metallurgy
Roman Metallurgy was known to be unbelievably advanced for its time. Atthe peak of its production around 150 AD, Roman Silver production had alreadybeen estimated to have been 5–10 times larger than both “Dark Ages” Europe, andthe mighty Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258 AD)’s Silver production combined at thedawn of the 9th Century AD.
Roman productions also of both Copper and Bronze meanwhile, remainedunsurpassed anywhere in the world until the Industrial Revolution of the mid19th Century. Lead on the other hand, was produced on a scale so large, thatsome Historians have even gone so far as to claim that its production led to,“the oldest large-scale hemispheric pollution ever reported” in the History ofMan.
Case in point, based on the projections of many different sources alike,here is a table below comparing the Han Chinese, and Roman Metal Productions inmetric tonnes; (Source: Comparison between Roman and Han Empires):


冶金
罗马的冶金技术,在那个年代看来可谓是先进到令人难以置信的。公元150年达到产量巅峰,在公元9世纪初期,罗马的白银产量据估计要比欧洲“黑暗时代”与“哈里发王国”时期的产量总和高出5-10倍。
与此同时,罗马也生产铜与青铜,直到19世界中期,其产量一直冠绝全球。另一方面,罗马的铅产量规模也十分巨大,以至于有些历史学家甚至宣称:罗马的铅生产导致了人类历史上“有史以来报告的最古老的大规模铅污染”。

例如,基于许多不同类似史料的估计,以下列了一张汉朝与罗马金属制品产量,单位是公吨:



In saying that on the other hand, Roman production of coins was farsurpassed by its Han counterparts.
By the mid 3nd Century AD, the Romans had managed to produce roughly 98million coins annually by one academic estimate. This greatly contrasted with the Han Chinese, who at its peak from 118 BC to 5 AD, managed to produce onaverage a magnitude of 220 million coins per year, or roughly 2.24 times morethan the Romans did.
The difference however between the two civilizations; was the compositionof which their currencies were made of. Han coins for one, were either made outof Copper, or Bronze Alloy (Copper mixed with Tin). Roman coins on the otherhand often varied between not just Copper, but Bronze, Silver and Gold alike.This suggests that Han production of Copper, whilst presently unknown at anofficial level, would most likely have outclassed their Roman counterparts by asignificant margin.
The different types of coins which existed under the RomanEmpire:

而另一方面,罗马的钱币制品产量,却被其竞争对手汉朝大幅超越。
一个学术评估显示:直到公元3世纪中叶,罗马每年大概生产了9800万枚钱币。与罗马形成鲜明对比的是,汉朝在其巅峰时期公元前118年到公元5年,每年平均生产了2.2亿枚钱币,大概比罗马高出2.24倍。
然而,两个文明的不同之处在于:他们在货币的组成部分上是有所不同的,汉朝的钱币由铜或青铜合金(铜与锡的合金)制成。然而罗马的钱币花样就多了,不光有铜,也有青铜的、银的以及黄金的。这说明,汉朝的铜产量,虽然目前没有官方数据,但很可能已经大幅领先其竞争对手罗马。(这里之前写反了,O(∩_∩)O)

罗马帝国时代存在的不同钱币类型:



A Chinese “Wuzhu” coin dating back to the Era of the “MartialEmperor”, Han Wudi (reigned 141–87 BC):

汉朝汉武帝时代(公元前141-公元前87年在位),中国的五铢钱:



The Roman Empire at this point in time, had also just independentlyinnovated the concept of “Cast Iron Tools”. Archaeological evidence howevermaintains, that this was done quite late in their history during the ImperialEra; sometime within the 4th-5th Centuries AD.
The Han meanwhile did not invent cast iron tools themselves, but had hadit by that point in time for roughly 500 years already; an entire 1,000 yearsbefore the Romans did, and therefore presumably outclassed the latter in castiron based objects, with regards to not only quantity, but even quality aswell.
This is an understatement really, since Cast Iron production was actuallyperfected during the 426 year long reign of the Han Dynasty, through the use ofspecialist furnaces which converted Iron ore into “Pig Iron”, and from thereinto “Cast Iron”, greatly improving civil and military tools alike.
Evidence meanwhile, for large scale mining operations and processingestablishments, have to this day been discovered en masse throughout the formerterritories of Roman Iberia.
Roman ingots of lead from the mines of Cartagena, Spain:

罗马帝国在彼时,也是刚刚独立发明了“铸铁工具”的概念。然而考古证据显示,这是在罗马帝国较晚时期才完成的发明;大约在公元4-5世纪之间的某个时期。
与此同时,汉朝并没有自己发明铁制工具,但是已经使用铁制品有大约500年了,比罗马早了整整1000年,所以想必在铁器方面是超越了后者的,不仅从数量上,在质量上也是如此。
而这其实只是一个保守的描述而已,因为在汉朝426年的统治岁月中,铁器是很完美的。通过专用的炼炉将铁矿石转化为“生铁”,这大幅改善了民用及军用器具的品质。
与此同时,有证据显示,在罗马伊比利亚故地,发现了大量的大规模采矿与加工场所。

在西班牙卡塔赫纳矿山发现的铅锭:



It was a similar case also for the former domains of Britannia inaddition, which was likewise overflowing with natural wealth at the time. Goldfor example has been discovered to have been mined at Dolaucothi in Wales,Copper and Tin in Cornwall, and Lead in Pennines and the Mendip Hills.Britannia’s Iron Production alone in fact, was 2,250 tonnes annually, oralready 50% of Han China’s total Iron production at a national level.
Italian steel meanwhile, limited as it was due to the fact that Romanfurnaces had a limit of roughly 1300°C, roughly 240°C short of the ability tomelt “pure” iron, still to this day is widely considered by Historians all overthe world alike, to have remained unrivalled at its peak. Indeed, even in theface of the aforementioned limitations, they were still able to forge “WroughtIron”, from which a form of steel known as “Wootz” was derived.
Verdict: The Roman Empire would appear to have been more advanced with regards to Metallurgy. The quantity of Roman produced metals, unrivalled until the advent of the Industrial Revolution nearly 1,850 years later gives them a decisive edge over the Han, despite the fact that the Chinese had some notable advantages also. Rome: 1; Han: 0.

此外,在大不列颠故地也发现了类似的情况,彼时该地区充满了自然资源。比如在威尔士的多莱克西就发现了金矿,在康沃尔地区发现了铜矿和锡矿,在奔宁山脉和门迪普山则发现了铅。事实上,不列颠地区的铁年产量达到了2250吨,以国家级别来看,已经达到了汉朝50%的铁制品总产量。
与此同时,意大利的钢铁生产有其局限性,因为罗马熔炉的极限温度大约是1300℃,要融化“纯”铁还差240℃。至今,全球史学界广泛认为其在顶峰时期拥有无与伦比的地位,即便在上述的限制下(指温度不够),他们仍然能通过一种名叫“乌兹钢”的衍生物锻造出熟铁。

结论:在冶金技术方面,罗马帝国似乎更先进一些。罗马的金属制品产量是无与伦比的,直到1850年后工业革命才被超越,相对于汉朝,这是一项决定性优势,虽然汉朝也有一些显著的优势。这一轮,罗马与汉朝,比分为1:0.




http://www.ltaaa.com/bbs/thread-471358-1-1.html
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
 楼主| 发表于 2018-3-17 22:25 超大游击队员 | 显示全部楼层
Agriculture
The dominance of Roman over Han Agriculture however, is not as clear aswas the case previously for Metallurgy.
Roman Agriculture which of course peaked during the course of the Nerva-AntonineDynasty (96–180 AD), greatly varied by region. But based on sources which havebeen ascertained from Wikipedia via Roman agriculture, state that for every average sowing of135 kg of seed per hectare, the following numbers are returned asalphabetically ordered by province (chart is self-created so no sourceavailable):

农业:
然而,罗马的农业技术相对汉朝,其优势地位就不像前述冶金技术那样明显了。
罗马的农业的巅峰时期是在安敦宁王朝时期(公元90-180年),地区差异非常之大。但是可以基于维基百科已经确定史料来看,维基百科显示:平均每公顷播种135千克,

以下数字按省份首字母排列(图表是自创的,所以没有可用资料)




Self-evidently, the annual output of wheat varied by region,which when averaged, returns a number amounting to 848 kg/ha, for the entireRoman Empire, which is surprisingly comparable to levels finally attained bythe countries of a “Least Developed” status in 1963, which today still accountsfor roughly 25% of all nations in the world as of 2018.
From Egypt alone in fact - the most agriculturally productiveregion in the Roman Empire - 20 million modii (or approximately 174.6 millionkg) of wheat were produced, allowing for at least 2/3 of the city of Rome tohave been fed alone, or 670,000 individuals roughly. If this number is constantfor the population as a whole, then based on the derived calculationsresultant, would amount to an annual national production figure of 15.714billion kg of grain per year, or 225 kg of wheat per person.
The Roman Empire was also quite fortunate to have been able topartly “mechanize” their Agricultural productions most notably in addition. Tothis extent, the Romans used a form of automatic harvester, primarily Oxenpowered, allowing them to have harvested ears of wheat as much as required,whilst also simultaneously rejecting its body at a parallel level.
The aforementioned Gallo-Roman Harvesting Machine, an originalRoman invention (not necessarily used all over the Empire however, presentevidence suggests exclusive use in Gaul only):

不言自明,小麦的年产量因地区而异,不过平均下来,得出来的数字是848公斤/公顷,在整个罗马帝国时期,这个数字与1963年“最不发达国家”达到的水平相当。截止到2018年,占到年全球平均产量的25%.
事实上,单独看埃及---罗马帝国农业产量最高的地区—生产了200万modii(不知道啥单位)(大约是1.746亿公斤)的小麦,这些粮食能养活2/3的罗马城市了,或者大约能养活67万人。如果这个数字相对于整个人口数量不变,然后根据其派生的计算结果,那么全国的总产量则为157亿公斤,平摊到个人身上大概是225公斤。
除此之外,罗马帝国也很幸运能够部分“机械化”其农业生产。在这方面,罗马人使用一种自动收割机,主要用牛驱动,这样他们就可以尽可能多的收获小麦了。同时还能节省同样强度的人力。

前面提到的高卢罗马人的自动收割机,由罗马原创(但是并没有在整个帝国时期应用,目前的证据表明仅在高卢独家使用):



The Romans also used extensively utilized mills (found all overModern France and Italy), to grind wheat into flour. The most impressiveremains of these Roman innovations can be seen today in Barbegal, France, inwhich 16 overshot water wheels arranged into 2 equal columns were purposefullypositioned in order to be fed by the main Roman aqueduct. The water would pourdown into a certain mill, which then also acted as the supply for the next onedown in the series also.
The Romans also used extensively utilized mills (found all overModern France and Italy), to grind wheat into flour. The most impressiveremains of these Roman innovations can be seen today in Barbegal, France, inwhich 16 overshot water wheels arranged into 2 equal columns were purposefullypositioned in order to be fed by the main Roman aqueduct. The water would pourdown into a certain mill, which then also acted as the supply for the next onedown in the series also.
Rome’s Agricultural production however falls slightly short oftheir rivals’ supposed numbers, which has previously once been claimed beforeto have lain somewhere in the vicinity of 16 billion kg of wheat per year, ormerely 1.8% more than Rome. Said to have led both the world in annual grainyields at a absolute and per capita level, this would have amounted toapproximately 280 kg of wheat per person, or roughly 11% more than their Romancounterparts.
Abetted by the perfection also of Cast Iron tools from before,the Han saw major advances in Agricultural technology with regards to theChinese invention of the “Multi-Tube Seed Drill”, pictured down below asfollows:

罗马人还广泛使用磨坊(在现代法国和意大利都有发现)将小麦磨成面粉。这些罗马创,最令人印象深刻的遗迹今天可以在法国巴尔贝加看到,其中16个排列成2列的水轮被有目的地定位,以便引入罗马主水道系统的供水。水则会导入到一个特定的磨坊,而这些水也可以作为下一个磨坊的供水来源。
这玩意大概运行了200年,估计每天可生产4.5吨面粉。这足以为临近的阿莱拉特镇提供粮食了,阿莱拉特有大约3-4万居民。
然而罗马的农业产量任然要略低于(汉朝)其竞争对手的预期产量,之前有流言声称(汉朝)每年出产接近160亿斤小麦,或者说比罗马高出1.8%。据说这(些数据)致使世界人均粮食产量都达到了绝对的人均水平,这意味着人均小麦所得量接近280kg,人均所得量大约高出罗马11%。

彼时完美的铸铁工具也广受赞赏,汉朝见证了农业技术的重大进展,彼时中国人发明了“多管播种机”,如下图所示:





It was a revolutionary tool which made the sowing of seedsquicker, more efficient, and less time consuming. And it was directly as aresult of this innovation, that production yields were maximized thus acting tosustain population growth henceforth.
The Han Dynasty however, did not only invent the Multi Tube SeedDrill to help them in the areas concerning Agricultural production, butlikewise also innovated the concept of the “Replacement/Alternating Field” or“Daitianfa” (代田法) Method of Farming, in which fields were divided into multiplelong narrow trenches, making it easy for the various seeds to be placed intothose said trenches.
In addition, the soil that fell from the mountain tops on whichthe trenches were placed, supported the stalks of the various new plants. As aresult, this method also made it easier to water. It was a development whichallowed Intensive Farming to emerge first in China, before it did in the RomanEmpire. The Chinese invention of the Wheelbarrow around 100 AD likewise,further acted to make Han Agricultural productions more efficient, by making iteasier to travel back and forth during in the intervals between each individualharvest.
A reconstruction of the Chinese invention of the wheelbarrow,originating back to the Early Han Era:

这种器具是革命性的,它的出现使播种更加快速、高效且省时。这种创新带来的直接结果,那就是作物产量的最大化,此后的人口持续增长。
然而,汉朝不仅发明了多管播种机来提升农业产量,同样的,也发明了“代田法”这种农业概念,这种方法将田地分割成多个狭长的壕沟,从而各种种子更容易放进上述的壕沟。
此外,山顶上的由于壕沟的存在,土壤从上面落下去,带来了各种作物的秸秆。而这种方法使浇水也更为容易。这一发展,使集约化农业第一次出现在中国大地,比罗马要早。中国大约在公元100年发明了独轮手推车,这使收获季节的来回的移动更加容易,进一步提升了汉代农业生产的效率。

以下重现了中国人发明的独轮车,起源于汉代早期:



An all new plough was also invented during the Han Era whichrequired only 1 man to control it, 2 oxen to pull it, and was complemented with3 plowshares, a seed box to collect the drills, and a tool which turned downthe soil. This new discovery hypothetically allowed the Chinese to sow apotential 45,730 m^2 in a single day.
Verdict: Tough call, but a point should probably be awarded to theforemostly agriculture centric society of Han, which had also even went so faras to place the farmer near the top of the social hierarchy, second only toImperial Official. Furthermore, it should already be self evident that the Hanmade several more important discoveries to the fields to Agriculture than theirWestern counterparts did. Rome and Han: 1 all.

汉朝时期还发明了一种全新的耕犁,只需一人、两头牛便可操控,并配备了三个犁头,一个种子盒,另外还有一个翻土的装置。这一新发明据说可以使中国人在一天内播种45730平方米。

结论:有点左右为难,但是应该给汉朝一个“最重视农业”社会的称号,汉朝甚至将农民置于接近社会阶级的顶端的位置,仅次于帝国官员的存在。说到现在,应该已经不言自明吧,汉朝在农业领域比西方国家有更重要的发明。此轮,罗汉与汉朝,比分为1:1

Hydraulics and Mechanics
The Hierapolis Sawmill was probably one of Imperial Rome’sgreatest innovations in the realm of Mechanical Engineering. The sawmill, locatedin Asia Minor, was water powered and considered still to this day to be theearliest machine in the world to feature a “Crank and Connecting Rod”mechanism. It greatly assisted the Romans in converting wood, into lumber.
An artist’s impression of the Hierapolis Sawmill, anotheroriginal Roman Invention:

水利与机械
在机械领域,水力锯木厂应该是罗马帝国最重要的发明了。这种锯木厂位于小亚细亚半岛,用水力驱动,至今为止,应该是世界上最早的带有曲柄和连杆的机械了。极大的帮助了罗马将树木转变为木材。

希拉波里斯锯木厂还原图,另一项罗马原创发明:



It was precisely due to the invention of a Crank and ConnectingRod mechanism, which in time would also lead to the creation also of SteamPower. Created by a Greek Mathematician known today as Hero of Alexandria, hisinvention; the Aeolipile, was considered to be far ahead of its time, as properSteam Power wasn’t invented until at least 1698, with the advent of the SteamEngine.
The way in which it worked, was that a bladeless turbine wouldspin, when the central water container was heated. Torque as a result, wasproduced by the resulting steam which exited from the turbine, reflecting aphenomena still evident today with Jet engines.
An illustration of Hero’s Aeolipile:

正由于曲柄连杆机构的发明,导致了蒸汽动力被创造出来。人称“亚历山大英雄”的希腊数学家发明了:汽转球,这在当时被认为是遥遥领先的发明。因为直到1698年,随着蒸汽机的出现,蒸汽动力才被发明出来。
它的工作方式:当中央水容器被加热时,无叶片涡轮机将旋转起来,蒸汽机排出的蒸汽产生力矩,今天我们所见的喷气式飞机引擎也能反映这种现象。

以下是“亚历山大英雄”的汽转球还原图:



Though the Romans didn’t invent the Steam Engine themselves,they did however most notably already have the means to construct oneregardless based on this knowledge.
Apart from the earlier innovations of the Hierapolis Sawmill’sCrank and Connecting Rod Mechanism, and now also Steam Power derived from theAeolipile, the Romans also had intimate knowledge regarding the existence of aCylinder and Piston (used by metal force pumps), aside from non-return valves(utilized by water pumps) and gearing also (which water mills and clocks used).
All the five elements necessary to create a full, working SteamEngine as such, were already in existence by this point in time, long beforesuch a status quo was replicated by their Chinese rivals, on the far side ofthe world, many hundreds of years later.
Rome’s utilization of the Crane meanwhile, also reached itsheyday in the Imperial Era, an image of which can be seen below in thisparticular case of a “Pentaspastos”, or Five Pulley medium sized Crane, whichcould carry a 450 kg load:

虽然罗马没有自己发明蒸汽机,但是很明显他们已经可以通过这种知识建造一个了。
除了早期水力锯木厂中发明的曲柄和连杆机构之外,蒸汽动力也是由汽转球衍生出来的,罗马人对气缸和活塞的存在也有深入的了解(用于金属力泵),此外他们还很了解回流阀(用于水泵),另外还有齿轮(用于水力磨坊和钟表)。
彼时,创建一个完整的、可运行的蒸汽机的所有所需部件都已存在,这比其竞争对手中国复制这种技术要早很久,世界另一端的中国,几百年后才出现这类东西。

与此同时,罗马对起重机的利用也达到了帝国的巅峰时期,下图可见一个叫“Pentaspastos”的装置,或者叫它“五滑轮起重机”,这种器械足以承载450公斤的荷载。



Even the simplest Roman Crane however, the Trispastos had amechanical advantage of 3:1 as it came equipped with three pulleys. Assumingthat the average fully matured adult man could lift say 50 kg, then this is tosay that the aforementioned pulley could help him displace a weight amountingto 150 kg.
The largest of the Roman Cranes however, the 10.4 metre highPolyspastos, had 5 pulleys and needed to be crewed by 4 different individuals,which would then allow them to lift a potential 3,000 kg. It could have evenlifted up to 6 tonnes however if the appropriate adjustments were made.
A photo below depicting the large Roman crane known as thePolyspastos:

即使是最简单的罗马起重机---“Trispastos”也具有3:1的机械优势,因为它配备了三个滑轮。假设一个成年男子可以提起50公斤,那就说是,前文提到的滑轮能帮助他们吊起重达150公斤的重量。
然而,罗马最大的起重机---- 高达10.4米的“Polyspastos”拥有5个滑轮,需要4个成员来操纵,可吊起3000公斤。如果对其做一些适当的调整,重量甚至可以提升到6吨。
下图显示了一个巨大的罗马起重机,人称“Polyspastos”:



When compared to say Ancient Egypt for example, where 50 menwere required to lift a 2,500 kg load up a ramp, the Polyspastos allowed oneindividual to quickly and easily lift 3 tonnes worth of materials, greatlyincreasing efficiency when it came to matters of construction.
In the East meanwhile at this point in time, the Han Chinesewere also quite busy at work with their own contributions in the areas ofMechanics and Hydraulics.
The mechanical Belt Drive for example, was first introduced toHumanity by the Han Dynasty of China. The belt was an important innovation, asit was then used to assist in the winding of silk fibres, onto the bobbins ofweaver shuttles.
Speaking of which, the “Loom” had also first appeared onto thestage of the world by this point in time. Importantly, it would sooner ratherthan later be used to create the exotic material known as Silk, en masse. Silkwould of course later go on to contribute to the vast wealth of China forthousands of years to come.
A historical depiction of the Han invention of the loom:

比如跟古埃及相比,古埃及用50个人才能将2500公斤的负荷移动到坡道上,罗马的“Polyspastos”只需一人便可迅速、不费吹飞之力吊起3吨材料,这极大地提升了基建效率。
而在东方,中国人在为机械与水利的领域努力地贡献自己的力量。
比如机械皮带传动,就是由中国人在汉代你首次带给人类的。皮带是一项重要的发明,被用来将蚕丝纤维盘绕到织布机的梭子上。
说到这里,彼时,织布机也第一次登上世界舞台。更重要的是,它迟早会用于创造一种其他的材料---那就是丝绸。而这之后的几千年里,丝绸无疑会为中国的巨大财富做出重要贡献。

历史里描述的汉代织布机:



The Seismoscope meanwhile, was probably one of the greatestinventions of the Han Dynasty during China’s Early Imperial Era. Earthquakes,which had long plagued Sino civilization from time immemorial, often (asEarthquakes do) strike without warning, and were always highly catastrophic.
Naturally in response to such an annoying threat, a ChineseAstronomer known as Zhang Heng invented the Seismoscope in order to detectwhich direction an Earthquake had, or was currently occurring in, in order toquickly direct relief efforts to the affected areas immediately. In 132 BC forexample, it successfully detected and identified an Earthquake which wasoccuring 500 km in a specific direction, despite the fact that no tremors couldbe felt at the time.
A photo depicting Zhang’s device below (equipped with a “Crankand Catch” Mechanism, whenever an Earthquake was detected from afar, aninverted pendulum would swing to 1 of 8 directions. In response, a metal ballwould then drop into a frog’s mouth, to indicate the direction in which anEarthquake was currently occurring):

与此同时,简易地震仪,可能是中国早期帝国时期---汉代,最重要的发明。长期以来一直困扰着中华文明的地震,经常(地震确实是这样)毫无征兆的发生,而且通常是灾难性的。
为了应对这种恼人的威胁,一位中国天文学家—张衡发明了地动仪,用于探测地震发生的方位,或者是目前发生地震的方位,以便迅速赶往灾区开展救灾工作。比如在公元前132年,它就成功的探测到一次地震,这次地震发生于500公里以外的特定方向,尽管当时无人可感觉到震感。

下图显示了张衡发明的装置(装备了“曲柄和抓手”机构,每当远处发生地震时,倒立摆将摆动到8个方位之一的位置,然后一个金属球将掉至青蛙的嘴里,用以指示当前发生地震的方向):



Both the Romans and Han however, shared two things in commonwith regards to the field of Mechanical and Hydraulic Engineering: they bothused water mills and chain pumps throughout the duration of their respectiveempires. In the case of the Roman Empire, the set of aforementioned Water Millswhich were introduced back in the previous chapter, has been aptly described by21st Century Historians to be, “the greatest known concentration of mechanicalpower in the ancient world”.
The Han however, took Hydraulic developments one step further,by inventing both a waterwheel powered Mechanical Puppet Theatre which featuredmany self moving automatons, and also the water clock. The water clockfunctioned in that it measured the passing of time, based on the regulated flowof liquid into, or out of a container.
The Han Era Water Clock, used by the Imperial Chinese to measurethe passing of time and was made out of Bronze:

在机械和水利工程方面,罗马和汉朝都展现了2个共同点:二者在各自的整个帝国期间,都使用了水力磨坊和链泵。罗马帝国方面,上一章节中介绍的那一套水力磨坊,被21世纪的历史学家描述为:古代世界里最伟大的机械力量教科书。
然而汉朝,将水利工程的发展带入了一个新高度。汉朝发明了水轮车驱动的水傀儡,以及水力驱动的时钟。水钟的功能在于它能根据调节流入或流出容器的液体流量来测量时间的流逝。

以下为汉代水钟,皇家用其来测量时间的流逝,由青铜制造:



The creator of the Seismoscope, Zhang Heng was also the first toaddress the issue of the falling pressure head, with regards to the inflowwater clock (which gradually slowed the timekeeping process over time) bysetting up an additional tank between the reservoir and inflow vessel.
The creator of the Seismoscope, Zhang Heng was also the first toaddress the issue of the falling pressure head, with regards to the inflowwater clock (which gradually slowed the timekeeping process over time) bysetting up an additional tank between the reservoir and inflow vessel.
Rotary fans most notably also led to the invention of theWinnowing machine, where they were actively also utilized, to separate grainfrom the casing of their seeds. A crank handle and tilt hammer was used toachieve this. Ideally, a cranked fan was to produce an airstream in order topower the utilized rotary fan, which in turn would be used on the harvestedgrain afterwards.
Rotary fans most notably also led to the invention of theWinnowing machine, where they were actively also utilized, to separate grainfrom the casing of their seeds. A crank handle and tilt hammer was used toachieve this. Ideally, a cranked fan was to produce an airstream in order topower the utilized rotary fan, which in turn would be used on the harvestedgrain afterwards.

地动仪的缔造者---张衡,通过在储水器和流入容器之间设置额外的储水罐,率先解决了水钟内水压压力下降问题(随着时间的流逝会逐渐减慢计时过程)
汉代的一种类似空调原型的装置也得到了发展,这种装置改良后为中国精英阶层所用。大型手动旋转式风扇配备了水轮,有时偶尔还能以水打湿大厅的人们,用以降温。
旋转式风机最引人注目应用的还是风选机的发明,它用处还是很大的,可将谷物与其谷壳分开。采用曲柄加上杵锤来实现这种功能。理想情况下,曲柄风扇所产生气流从而驱动旋转风扇,该旋转风扇随后将用于收获的谷物(分离谷壳)。

下图可见汉朝时期出现风选机模型:



Verdict: Although the Han definitely made more contributions in thisparticular area, the Romans made quite a couple of highly importantdevelopments also, and thus their capabilities can be considered to have beenequal. The steam powered machine for example, was unbelievably advanced for itstime. Still, the same could technically be said for China’s contributions inthese fields also. Rome: and Han: 2 all.

结论:虽然在特定领域,汉朝的贡献明显更多,但罗马在做出了一些非常重要的发展,所以这哥俩的能力应被认为是差不多的的。比如蒸汽动力机械,在那个时代来说,足以先进到令人惊掉下巴。当然了,中国在这些领域的贡献也是如此。所以此轮,罗马与汉朝,比分为2:2。
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-3-17 22:27 超大游击队员 | 显示全部楼层
Medicine
Because the Romans were not so expertly skilled at Medicinethemselves, they often had to borrow experts and field knowledge based on theworkings of the Ancient Greeks. Nonetheless, they were still able to producesome prominent figureheads such as Galen, or Celsus.
Roman Medicine at its heights, was characterized by an everexpanding knowledge on the fields of practical medicine, and saw great advanceswith regards to the field of Surgery. From the second century AD, literarytexts contributed to by many physicians known as the “Medici”, allowed Rome toassist in their understanding of which herbs were appropriate for a specificailment.
Ippomarathron or Fennel for example was known to cure cases ofpainful urination, internal disorders such as stomach pains were meanwhilesuppressed using Ra (Rhubarb), Aristolochia (Birthwort) was used to easebirthing pains, Aloe for wounds and Glikoriza (Liquorice) for calming internalorgans.
Reliefs from well preserved archaeological sites such asPompeii, have been known to have provided experts with tangible evidence,regarding the use of forceps, tweezers, wound retractors, collecting cups,needles and various sized scalpels to assist Roman doctors in surgery.
Roman Surgery tools, commonly used during the first and secondcenturies during the Early Roman Empire:

医学
由于罗马人本身对医学并不熟练,他们经常需要向外部借用一些专家和医学学问,这些学问基于古希腊人的知识,尽管如此,他们仍然出现了一批杰出的医学家,比如盖伦。
罗马的医学,其特点在于实用医学领域的知识不断扩大,在外科领域取得了巨大进展。从公元二世纪开始,许多被称为“Medici”的医生对医学文献作品做出了贡献,这也帮助了罗马人理解何种草药适用于何种特定的疾病。
比如茴香,世人都知道可以治疗小便涩痛,内脏疾病比如胃痛则可以用大黄来治疗,马兜铃可以用来缓解分娩之痛,芦荟用来治伤口,甘草可用于镇静内脏。
众所周知,一些保存完好的考古遗址,如庞贝古城为专家提供了有关使用钳,镊子,伤口牵开器,收集杯,针头和各种尺寸的手术刀以协助罗马医生进行手术的实际证据。

罗马的手术器具,在早期罗马帝国时期的第一、二个世纪里是很常用的器具:



Using such tools, Roman doctors could perform a wide variety ofsurgeries, including but certainly not limited to: cataract removal, drainingof fluids, trephination, and sometimes even the reversals of circumcision. Itshould be noted however, that like in most other societies at the time, Surgerywas considered to be a last resort, due to the risks involved in such adangerous and unsanitary practice at the time, giving rise to infectionspost-operation.
The first hospitals to appear in Italy were also introducedduring the course of the Roman Empire, alas they were usually only reserved forslaves and soldiers however. Valetudinaria as they were called, were mainlyrectangular and accompanied with 4 wings at any given time. Their maximumcarrying capacity could accommodate up to 500 men, or 10% of an ImperialLegion.
A plan for a Roman Valetudinarium, near Düsseldorf, Germany,dating back to the late 1st century AD:

用这种器具,罗马医生能实施各式各样的外科手术,包括但不限于:去除白内障,排除液体、环钻术、有时甚至能还原割礼。然而应该指出的是,与当时大多数其他社会一样,手术被认为是最后手段,因为手术比较危险,且彼时的卫生状况堪忧可能导致感染,所以风险很大。
在罗马帝国时期,在意大利出现了第一批医院,虽然他们只是用来为奴隶和士兵服务的。一种被称作“Valetudinaria”的医院,通常是矩形的,带有4只翼。最大的病员容量高达500人,大约是一个帝国军团的10%。

罗马的“Valetudinarium”还原图,位于德国杜塞尔多夫,可追溯到公元1世纪:



Roman physicians by this point in time, were also self-aware oftheir own limitations however, with regards to the treatment of certain wounds.Serious injuries to the brain, heart, liver, spine, intestines, kidneys andarteries for example, were widely considered by many at the time to have beenbeyond the expertise of many physicians alike.
Roman Medicine, often defined by common sense and supremepracticality, was sometimes also negated by a lot of pseudoscience at best, andobsolete practices at worst. Doctors would for example interpret a patient’sdreams in order to decide on what treatments a sick person would receive.Furthermore, was the Roman belief that drinking blood fresh from a recentlyslain Gladiator, would cure epilepsy. Needless to say, these treatments wereusually redundant.
On the bright side however, the Romans did also correctlyhypothesize (based on Greek knowledge retrieved from renowned Hellenicphysician, Hippocrates) that the key to living longer lay at the base of a wellbalanced diet. Thanks to the efforts of Galen meanwhile, bandages weresterilized in wine first before being applied onto an injury.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) meanwhile, used still to thisvery day in certain parts of the world, was also likewise utilized during theHan Dynasty 2,000 years ago. Whether there is or is not evidence for theeffectiveness of TCM of course however, remains highly controversial even tothis very day.
Acupuncture (the inserting of needles in order to accelerate thebody’s natural healing processes) was and still is one of these aforementionedcontroversial practices (practitioners of Acupuncture today have claimed thatmany physical and mental illnesses, can be cured by such a practice. Naturally,many others are quite sceptical of such claims, but it presumably would havealso acted well as a placebo, which has been scientifically proven to sometimesbe just as effective as the genuine cure), an acupuncture chart depicting thewhereabouts of an individual’s “Meridian” lines, are seen below as follows:

彼时的罗马医师,也能意识到自己医术的局限性,然而对于某些伤口的治疗方面,比如脑补、心脏、肝脏、脊柱、肠道、肾脏、动脉这些器官的严重损伤,诸如此类的疾病在当时,会被认为已经超出了许多专业医师的知识范围。
罗马医学通常由常识和实用性来定义,不过有时也被吐槽:最擅长伪科学,而摒弃实践。
另一方面,罗马人也正确提出了一个正确的假设,那就是保持均衡的饮食习惯是可以延长寿命的(基于希腊名医的知识)。同时,由于盖伦(古罗马医师)的努力,绷带在用于处理伤口之前首先要在葡萄酒中消毒。
而传统中医(TCM),在世界某些地区任然被沿用至今,其在2000年之前的汉朝也有应用。当然了,传统中医是否有效的证据,至今仍存在争议。

针灸(插入针头以加速身体的自然愈合的过程),任然如上述所说那样,存在争议性(如今的针灸从业者宣称,许多生理与心理疾病都能用针灸来治疗。自然的,也有许多人怀疑这番言论。但它大概可以作为安慰剂而发挥功效,已被科学证明有时与真正的治愈效果一致)。描述人体“子午线”分布的针灸图如下所示:



But apart from these possible trivialities, the Han Chinese alsomade many notable practical contributions to the fields of Medicine however.Pulse diagnosis for one, was practiced by the physicians of the Han Dynastywhich understood that an individual’s health could be ascertained merely bymeasuring their heart rate.
Because of this discovery, it allowed them to recognize that ahealthy person was one who had a low resting heart rate for example. Not onlythat, but this also allowed them to often guess which treatments were requiredto nurse an individual of poor health, back to optimal standards with regardsto physical condition.
Practical advice meanwhile, was given in regards to the act of“Clinical Lancing”, in order to remove an abscess. A Medical text known as the“Yellow Emperor’s Inner Canon” (黃帝內經) meanwhile,recognized the medical phenomena of the Circadian Rhythm; a biological clockknown to have repeated itself every 24 hours or so. The text also noted thesymptoms and reactions of people with various diseases of the liver, heart,spleen, lung, or kidneys in that aforementioned 24-hour period.
Aside from these practical treatments however, other morequestionable cures which were said to have allowed for the better flow of bloodthroughout the Human body, also existed at the time, chief amongst which wasthe practice of Moxibustion (a process where dried plants are burnt near thesurface of the body, with the intention to also dispel certain pathogenicinfluences):

除了这些可能有些琐碎的事之外,汉朝人也对医学领域做出了许多显著的实际贡献。把脉就算其中一致,汉朝医生对病人把脉,通过测量心率来确定个体的健康状况。
由于这项发现,他们认识到,一个健康在平静的时候心率应当是比较低的。不仅如此,这让汉朝医师能针对健康状况差的病人选取不同的治疗手段。
同时,对于临床手术来说,也提供了一些实用建议,比如去除脓肿。有本书叫《黄帝内经》,这本书认识到医学现象的昼夜节律;生物钟大约24小时自身循环一次。这本书还介绍了各种疾病24小时里的的症状与反应,比如肝病、心脏病、脾脏病、肺病或者肾病。

除了这些实践治疗以外,当时也存在其他更令人怀疑的的治疗方法,据说可以使整个人体更好的血液流动,其中最主要的是艾灸(在身体皮肤的附近燃烧植物,目的是为了消除某些病灶的影响。):



Still, it was through the efforts of a Chinese physician, ZhangZhongjing who much like his Roman counterparts also notably suggested that poorhealth was as a result of bad dieting, and in followed up in his medical text,the “Essential Medical Treasures of the Golden Chamber” (金匱要略) with advice onwhich foods were rich in which vitamins, in order to treat illnesses naturallywith the resources of nature.
Another Chinese physician known as Hua Tuo, who had studied theYellow Emperor’ Inner Canon, used it to develop a form of anesthesia, which hethen applied to be used for surgical purposes. In addition to that developmenthowever, he also innovated a very particular type of cream which was recordedas having the ability to heal surgical wounds within a month’s time. And yet inanother recorded example, he correctly identified a premature fetal death,which he then removed, curing the mother of her ailments.
Physical exercise meanwhile, was upheld by the Han (much likethe Romans) as a way to stay naturally fit and healthy. Calisthenics wereupheld in the Han Dynasty, as mentioned in the Chinese philosophical books, the“Mawangdui Silk Texts” (馬王堆帛書), which originally hadmany detailed images depicting the most appropriate forms of exercise toincorporate into one’s daily routine, in order live by a healthy lifestyle.Both Qigong and Taichi to this day, are considered to have been derived fromHan Era Calisthenics.
Verdict: When the nonsense half from both civilizations’ understandingof Medicine is taken away, it would appear at first that the two were roughlyequal. But due to the existence of hospitals, and a seemingly superior surgeryknowledge, Rome slight edges out the Han Empire here. Which is not to say thatthe Chinese were necessarily inferior however, it would seem that Chineseunderstanding of natural medicine, often studied at an official level, edgesout their Western counterparts. Rome: 3; Han: 2.

不过,中国医生---张仲景,有点像罗马竞争对手那样,也意识较差的健康状况是由于不好的饮食习惯造成的。张仲景通过努力,编写了自己的医学典籍,那就是《金匮要略》,《金匮要略》推荐了富含维生素的食物,目的是通过自然的资源,自然地治疗疾病。
另一位中国医生—华佗,他研习过《黄帝内经》,并发展出一种麻醉剂,然后将其用于外科手术领域。除此之外,他还创造了一种非常特殊的霜剂,这种霜剂据记录能够在一个月内治愈手术伤口。
汉朝还推崇体育锻炼(这点有点像罗马),通过锻炼来保持自然和健康。徒手体操在汉代广受推崇,中国的哲学书籍---马王堆帛书就有提到,用许多详细的图像描绘了最恰当的锻炼形式,并将其融入日常生活中,从而以健康的生活方式生活。今天的气功与太极,被认为是从汉代徒手体操演变而来。

结论:当去除掉两个文明中对医学的那些荒谬理解之后,我们会发现,二者(在医学领域)大致相当。但是根据医院的存在、以及更高级的手术知识来说,罗马大概比汉朝高明那么一点点。当然也不是说中国差,我会说,中国人更加理解天然药物,而且经常有官方层次的医学研究,这点就比其西方竞争对手要厉害一点。这一轮,罗马与汉朝,比分为3:2.
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
 楼主| 发表于 2018-3-17 22:28 超大游击队员 | 显示全部楼层
Astronomy
As the oldest of the natural sciences, Astronomy has had quitethe long and varied history in both the Roman and Han Empires alike.
The Roman astronomer Ptolemy, was said to have not only studiedthe motions of the heavenly bodies in depth, but had also mapped out roughly1,000 different unique stars. Throughout the duration of Imperial Rome,Sundials were already being used to measure the passing of time, and couldusually be found in most major towns. From the volcanic ashes of Pompeii alonefor example, 35 sundials have been retrieved in modern times by archaeologistsexcavating at the site.
A photograph depicting a Roman Sundial as can be seen below:

天文学
作为最古老的自然科学,天文学在罗马与汉朝都一样,拥有长久而多样的历史。
罗马天文学家—托勒密,据说不仅深入研究了天体的运动,而且还绘制了约1,000个不同的独特恒星。在罗马帝国时期,日晷就已经被用来记录时间了,通常在大多数主要的城镇都能找到这玩意。例如,从庞贝古城的火山灰中,现代考古学家发掘出了了35个日晷。

下图显示了罗马日晷:



Although he wrongly insisted that the Earth stood still, whilstthe Sun moved around it, Ptolemy did however understand the conceptual notionsof “Retrograde Motion”, the observation that despite the fact that planets inthe night sky only rotated around the Earth in one direction, occasionally theywould also appear to journey backwards.
He also subsequently followed up such observations with aplethora of complicated mathematical equations, in order to predict when eachplanet would go into retrograde motion. The Roman historian Cassius Diomeanwhile, records the observations of Halley’s Comet by Roman astronomers.
Most notably, the Romans also knew that the Earth was round.Sailors were already using the stars to navigate the High Seas, and contrary toPtolemy’s own beliefs, certain Roman astronomers had already correctlyhypothesized, that the Earth went around the Sun, rather than vice-versa. TheJulian Calendar meanwhile recorded a year as being 365.25 days long, dividedinto 12 months in a year.
A later European Star Chart based on Ptolemy’s work:

虽然托勒密错误地坚持认为:地球是静止不动的,而太阳是围绕地球转动的。但托勒密却理解了“天体逆行运动”的概念。即观察到尽管夜空中的行星只是绕着地球在一个方向上旋转,但偶尔它们也会出现向后退的情况。
随后托勒密还通过大量复杂的数学方程来跟踪这些观测,以便预测每个行星何时会进入逆行运动。与此同时,罗马历史学家卡西乌斯·狄奥还记录了罗马天文学家对哈雷彗星的观察。
而最重要的是,罗马人还知道地球是圆的。水手们已经能利用星星来导航从而在公海上驾船。与托勒密自己的信仰相反,某些罗马天文学家已经正确地假设:地球围绕太阳而不是反过来。与此同时,儒略历记录到一年为365.25天,分为12个月。

之后的欧洲星图,基于托勒密的著作:



Han Chinese achievements meanwhile in the realm of theAstronomy, were at least as equal to their Western counterparts. The Chineseastronomical text, the “Miscellaneous Readings of Cosmic Patterns and PneumaImages” (天文氣象雜占), made many detailed, visual depictions ofroughly 300 different climatic and astronomical features including clouds,rainbows, stars, constellations, and comets.
A comet which was observed in the Parthian Empire (247 BC–228AD) at the time of the birth of Mithradates II (the same one which theRepublican Romans had also observed prior to the assassination of JuliusCaesar), was also likewise spotted by Chinese Astronomers in 135 BC.
The Han much like their Roman counterparts were also known tohave used the Armillary Sphere (having invented the water powered variantthemselves), in order to be used as a model for the Heavens above, the linesaround the spheres represented the notions of Longitude and Latitude. Shownbelow is the variant designed by Astronomer Zhang Heng (who also invented theSeismoscope mentioned previously):

而汉朝在天文学方面,至少与西方同行有相同的地位。中国天文学著作—“天文气象杂占”一书,其中有很多细节描述,大约对300种不同的气候和天文特征进行了视觉描绘,包括云,彩虹,星星,星座和彗星。
帕提亚帝国时期(公元前247年-公元228年)米特里达二世生日梯发现了一颗彗星(在朱利叶斯凯撒被刺杀之前,罗马共和国发现的也是这颗彗星),中国天文学家在公元前135年也发现了。

汉朝与其竞争对手罗马很像,他们也使用了浑天仪(汉朝还自行发明了水力驱动的的改进型),为了用于展示天空的模型,浑天仪上的线条代表了经度与纬度。下图展示了天文学家张衡设计的浑天仪变种(前文所提到的地动仪也是他发明的):



Halley’s comet, mentioned before as being accounted for byCassius Dio, was likewise spotted by the Han Chinese, roughly 25 years beforetheir Roman contemporaries back in 12 BC. What is now known to be a Supernova ,was also likewise known to have been observed by Han astronomers in 185 BC.
Various comets were also discussed with regards to theirpositions in the sky, and which direction they were then currently moving,along with their colour, size, and for how long a period of time they werevisible; all of which were recorded by the Chinese Historian, Sima Qian in histext, the “Records of the Grand Historian” (史记).
Zhang Heng’s works in accounting for the stars, allowed him toaccount for 2,500 different stars (as opposed to Ptolemy’s 1,000 observedstars), along with 124 constellations, an effort which had been aided by SimaQian in his text, “A Monograph on Celestial Officials” (天官書).
And as for official Taichu Calendar (太初历) which was usedofficially by the Han Chinese meanwhile, whilst not as accurate as the JulianCalendar, still manage to calculate the tropical year, approximating it to 365.385/1539 days, whilst asserting that the duration of the lunar month was 29.43/81 days. Before long however, the former Sifen Calendar (古四分历), which hadbeen introduced roughly 600 years prior by that point in time, was re-adoptedby the Chinese, which made the same estimates as its Julian counterpart haddone in the West, with regards to the length of a specific month and year.
Like their Roman counterparts, the Han Chinese also made fulluse of Sundials as well (this particular one was retrieved from Inner Mongolia,dating back to the 2nd Century AD):

前文所提到的哈雷彗星,由卡西乌斯·狄奥所记录,也被汉朝人发现了,大约比罗马早25年,可追溯至公元12年。现今所知的超新星(现象),汉代天文学家在公元前185年就已经观测到了这种天文现象。
关于各类彗星在天空之中所处位置、现今其运动的方向,诸如此类话题也被广泛地讨论,并描述了各种彗星的颜色、尺寸以及多长时间能见到一次;所有这些都被中国历史学家所记录,比如记录在司马迁的著作《史记》中。
而张衡的工作则是记录星象,由此他记录了2500个不同的星体(而不是托勒密的观察到的1000颗恒星),外加124个不同的星座,这是司马迁在其著作《天官書》中所提到的。
至于官方的太初历,此历由汉朝官方所用。此历虽然不如儒略历精准,但任然成功计算出一年大约有365.385天,同时还估计出农历月的时间是29.43天。不过不就之后,之前600年前所用的“古四分历”又被中国人重新采用,这款历法与其西方竞争对手儒略历所估算的每月/每年的数据一致。

与罗马一样,汉朝人也充分利用了日晷(这个日晷是从内蒙古发掘的,可追溯至公元2世纪):



Similar to Ptolemy however, the Han believed incorrectly in aGeocentric Model of the Solar System. Though the Chinese did not know that theEarth was round unlike their Roman counterparts, thanks to the efforts of JingFang, a musical theorist, it was quickly understood that the Moon was onlybright since it reflected the light emanating from the Sun, a belief which wasalso shared by Zhang Heng.
Zhang in addition notedthat sunlight didn’t always reach the Moon, a phenomenon due to thefact that Earth would obstruct the rays during a Lunar eclipse.Solar eclipses, were also observed by the said Han astronomer, whereby sunlightwas prevented from reaching by the moon.
A common thought during the Han Dynasty that rain came from theareas beyond the Earth, was also disproved during this point in time, when anastronomer called Wang Chong argued in favour of an evaporation process, whererain came from water retrieved from the oceans instead, in his book, “BalancedDiscourse” (论衡).
Verdict: Due to the overwhelming number of quality discoveries made bythe the Middle Kingdom, this next point by far goes to Han China. The Chinesewould not have “steamrolled” the Romans, however there can be no doubt that itwould be they which should emerge victorious in the end. It seems veryself-evident that the Chinese was a Space oriented society, with a detailedknowledge of celestial mechanics. Rome and Han: 3 all.

与托勒密相似,汉朝对太阳系模型的认知也是错误的。尽管汉朝人相对于罗马人来说,并不知道地球是圆的。但是归功于音乐理论家京房的努力,京房很早就意识到月亮只有在反射了太阳光之后才会变亮,而张衡也持有相同的看法。
此外,张衡还指出,太阳光并不是总能到达月球,这是由于在月食期间地球会阻挡太阳的光线。这位汉朝天文学家还观测到了日食现象,日食期间,太阳光被遮挡而不能到达月球。
在汉朝时期,一个普遍的观点,那就是雨水是来地球以外的某处。而此时有人证明出这个观点是错误的,当时一位名叫王冲的天文学家认为这是一个蒸发过程,雨水来自海洋中的水,在他的著作《论衡》中就有提及。

结论:由于中央王国大量的高质量发现,天平目前为止向汉朝倾斜了。但中国人还没有“击败”罗马人,然而毫无疑问,最终应该得到胜利的是他们(汉朝)。不言而喻,中国是一个以空间为导向的社会,具有天体力学的详细知识。所以此轮为止,罗马与汉朝,比分3:3.

Naval Technology
Roman civilization by the time of the Empire had already hadquite a long and proud maritime tradition, even despite the fact that theRomans were often fairly suspicious of travelling by the sea, since theythought that it was always infested with ocean going monsters at any giventime. As a result, they often preferred to travel by land instead.
Nonetheless, Roman achievements with regards to Naval Technologycan neither be ignored nor underplayed. Shipbuilding to the Ancient Romans wasmore than just a mere science as it often perceived to be today, rather it wasan art first and foremost.
During the Imperial Era, the Romans abandoned their traditionalmethods of building the outer hull first, and instead replaced it with one usedstill to this day; constructing the frame of an ocean going vessel, beforeproceeding onto its hull and other crucial yet “secondary” components.Described to be a more systematic type of method, it dramatically shortened thetime required to adequately construct a solitary ship.
A reconstruction of a Roman anchor:

海军技术
帝国时期的罗马文明,已经有了相当长、引以为傲的海洋传统,尽管罗马人对海洋旅行经常持怀疑态度,因为他们总认为海洋怪物会使他们感染。因此,他们更喜欢陆地旅行。
尽管如此,罗马在航海科技上的成就,既不能被忽视也不能被淡化。古代罗马人对待造船,不仅仅是像今天一样,被认为是单纯的一门科学,更为重要的是,他们视之为一门艺术。
在帝国期间,罗马人摒弃了传统造船方---先造外壳,取而代之的是迄今仍在使用的方法:在制造船体和其他“次要”部件之前,先造出船体的框架。这是一种更加系统的方法,大大缩短了建造一艘船所需的时间。

罗马船锚重建图:



Warships meanwhile, were designed to be light, yet inhumanlyquick (due to the fact that it operated both on wind power and human labour)and better still, highly maneuverable. Each war vessel came equipped with abronze ram, which was used to smash into an opposing enemy ship, severelyacting to cripple or even, provided the damage was extensive enough, wholly sinkit. Underwater hulls meanwhile often came equipped with a ratio of 6:1 or 7:1.
The Trireme, traditionally the main war vessel of the RepublicanEra (509–27 BC), during Imperial Rome was largely superseded with the vastlysuperior Quadrireme and Quinquereme class warships of the Imperial Navy. Incontrast to the Trireme before which was merely crewed by 180 rowers, the RomanQuinquereme had the capabilities to house a crew of 300 rowers, accompanied by90 oars on each side.
A graphic below depicting the Quadrireme Class Battleship, withits two distinctive “forts” located at the vessel’s bow and stern:

同时,战舰被设计成轻型化,但却快得残暴(那是因为战舰采用了风力和人力双重动力),这样的方法更好,机动性比较强。每艘军舰都配备了一个青铜撞锤,这是用来粉碎地方船只的,可以瘫痪对方船只,如果损坏强度足够的话,甚至可以使地方船只完全沉没。同时,这种船只的水下船体部分的比例通常为6:1或7:1.
“Trireme”传统上是罗马共和国时代的主要战舰(公元前509-27年),但在罗马帝国期间,基本上已经被帝国海军极其优越的“Quadrireme”和“Quinquereme”级战舰所取代。与之前仅配备180人的“Trireme”级相比,“Quinquereme”级能容纳300名划手,船的两边各配备90个桨。

下图描绘了“Quadrireme”级战舰,其两个独特的“堡垒”位于船首和船尾:



Speaking of which, the crew contrary to popular beliefs, was notmade of slaves, rather they were formed from the ranks of Roman citizens whohad signed up for the Legions, just like any other “normal” enlisted man. Thisdeeply serves to imply the professionalized nature of the Imperial Navy as awhole also in addition.
Anyways, with a length of 45 m, and a width of 5 m, it was ableto easily displace 100 tons of water, and was superior to the Republican EraTrireme with regards both to speed and the ability to perform to an excellentstandard in only the most treacherous of seas.
A mosaic from Tunisia depicting a Trireme Class Battleship,which was still used during the Imperial Era:

说到这一点,与大多数想法相反的是,船员不是由奴隶组成的,而是由报名参加军团的罗马公民组成的队伍,就像任何“正常”入伍的人一样。这也意味着整个帝国海军的专业化性质。
不管如何,一艘长45米,宽5米的战舰,其排水量是可以轻松达到100吨的。不管从速度方面、在最凶残海况下的表现来看,都要比共和国时代来得优越。

突尼斯的镶嵌画描绘了一艘“Trireme”级战列舰,在帝国时期任有使用:



Roman military ships in addition were greatly aided in maritimebattles by a boarding device which was used to board hostile ships known as theCorvus. It was a movable bridge which could attach itself to an enemy ship,allowing the Romans to transfer their military experience on land, to theirmartial endeavours at sea. Naturally, this acted only to assure Romansuperiority on the High Seas all throughout the Imperial Era.
Merchant class vessels on the other hand, were just as likely tobe as advanced as their military cousins. Their underwater hulls were usuallysignificantly shorter, with a ratio in some instances of 3:1, speaking of whichwere also usually a lot deeper than the vessels of the military, disallowingthem often to sail close to the coastal regions. Merchants ships were also thenaval, vehicular equivalent of “Marathon” runners, thus they were built to alsobe efficient over long distances, constricting them thus in the sense thatneither speed nor maneuverability were a priority when it came to theconstruction of such vessels.
They also usually came equipped with two huge side rudderslocated off the stern, the likes of such which were controlled by a smalltiller bar linked to a system of connecting cables. And depending on the sizeof these said vessels, often possessed between 1–3 square shaped sails,complemented also by a smaller triangular variant known as the “Supparum” atthe vessel’s bow.
Carrying capacities often oscillated between 100–150 tonnes ofcargo, with the maximum limit allowing some vessels to have been able to holdup to 3,000 amphorae (liquid holding containers). Roman merchant vessels havebeen known to be able to carry up to 600 tonnes of cargo though it should benoted, or to put it another way; the rough equivalent of carrying on board12,000 amphorae. Such behemoths were estimated to be 46 metres in length,besting even the Quinquereme class battleship, which was exactly a metreshorter.
A model of a Roman Merchant Ship:

此外,在海战中,罗马军舰也得到了的登船装置的极大协助,这种装置曾被用来登上被称为“乌鸦座”的敌对船只,这让罗马人将他们在陆地上的军事经验,转化为他们在海上的军事行动。当然了,这只是为了确保帝国时代,在整个远海上的优势。
另一方面,罗马的商用船只大概与它的老表(应该指汉朝)差不多水平吧。其水下船体部分通常非常短,比例大概只有3:1,这与军舰比起来就深得多了,这样经常阻碍他们在近海地区航行。因为商船也是航海器具,也具备像汽车一样的马拉松选手的特质,因此在建造这样的船只时,既不能考虑速度也不无需考虑可操作性。
它们通常还配备了两个位于船尾的巨大方向舵,这些方向舵,由与连接了线缆系统的小舵杆控制。根据这些船只的大小,通常拥有1-3个矩形帆,并且在船首处,还配备了一个小号的三角形变体(帆),人们称之为“Supparum”。
而装载容量通常在100-150吨之间,最大的限度下,一些船能容纳3000个双耳瓶(装液体的容器)。罗马商船据闻可装载600吨货物,或者换句话说大概相当于能搭载12000个双耳瓶,这个数量也很可观了。据估计,这种庞然大物,长度达46米,甚至比“Quinquereme”级战舰还要长1米。

罗马商船模型:



Chinese Naval Technology on the other hand compared to theirWestern counterparts was relatively non-existent. The Romans, had already had anational standing Navy previously established in the year 311 BC, but itwouldn’t be for another 1,300 years during the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD) untila similar maritime force was created by the Chinese to defend their coasts fromforeign invasions, and ruthless pirates.
Though the Han Chinese didn’t fear ocean travel as the Romansdid, they were mainly a landpower however and as such saw few improvements inthe realm of Naval Technology. An Early Han Era shipyard discovered back in1975 was said to be capable of producing ships for both the Merchant andMilitary navies, each of which was up to 30 metres long, 8 metres wide, andweighed 60 tonnes each. And yet another shipyard meanwhile was discovered tohave existed in Anhui province, which focused specifically on the creation ofmilitary vessels.
The “Junk” for the first time in Chinese history was meanwhileintroduced during the Han Era by the end of the 1st Century AD, and still tothis day is considered to be China’s earliest seaworthy naval vessel. The HanEra Junk had a square ended bow and stern (forcing them to sail in thedirection of the winds), a hull which was flat bottomed, and solid transversebulkheads as a replacement for the structural ribs often found in Romanvessels.
The Junk, which most notably lacked a sternpost, attached thenewly invented rudder to the back of their ships instead. The following Han EraMerchant ship model visually depicts such a notable detail down below asfollows (where the rudder is mounted at the back of the boat):

而中国的航海科技,在当时与罗马比起来,存在感就没那么强了。罗马人早在公元前311年就已建立了一支国家级常设海军。直到1300年后的宋代(公元960 - 1279年),中国人才建立一支类似的海上力量,用以保卫他们的海岸免受外来入侵和无情海盗的袭扰。
虽然汉朝人不像罗马人那么害怕海洋旅行,但是他们主要还是一支陆上力量,因此在航海技术领域几乎没有什么很大的进步。据传,在1975年发现的一个早期汉代造船厂,其能为商业和军队生产船只,但这些船只只有30米长,8米宽,重量只有60吨。同时,在安徽省发现了另一个造船厂,这个船厂特别着重于建造军船。
中国历史上首艘平底帆船是在汉代早期创造出来的,时间大约在公元1世纪末期,至今仍被认为是中国最早的适航的海军舰艇。汉朝平底帆船拥有一个矩形的后弓和舳(迫使他们朝风的方向航行),拥有平底的船体和坚固的横舱壁,用以替代罗马船只中常见的结构框架。

平底帆船通常缺少船尾柱,而是将他们新发明的方向舵装在船的尾部。以下是汉朝时期的商船模型,其中描述了一个值得注意的细节(船舵安装在船的后部):



Because of the new Chinese invention of the “Stern-MountedRudder” during this point in time meanwhile, which replaced the previously usedSteering Oar, allowed Chinese ships much like their Roman counterparts to bequite capable of travelling unto the high seas at will, in order to exchange domesticallyproduced goods and services, for their internationally produced counterparts.
A Han contemporary, Wan Chen, in his book, “On Strange Things ofthe South” meanwhile, notes that the Han had merchant ships which could carrycrews of up to 700 individuals (twice as much as the largest Roman ships),vessels which could complement a cargo with weights of up to 260 tonnes (farshort of Rome’s largest naval ships, which could carry up to 600 tonnes worthof cargo or 2.3 times more than a “Large” Han ship).
Wang explains with regards to the capabilities of such ships, asfollows below:
"… these ships sail without avoiding strong winds anddashing waves, by the aid of which they can make great speed because theiroblique rig, which permits the sails to receive from one another the breath ofthe wind, obviates the anxiety attendant upon having high masts.”
Though China did not have a standing navy, they did howevermaintain a reserve military force which was capable of waging war at sea,should the occasion have called for it (such forces were used in the invasionsof Vietnam for example back in 111 BC, where Han Marines disembarked on theEastern coasts of the Nam Viet Kingdom (204–111 BC), quickly routing thedefending native forces).
The Imperial Navy itself meanwhile was said to be quite varied.There were 4 major classes of warships during the reign of the Han Dynasty,including the Wing, Stomach Striker, Bridge, and Spire Class battleships.
The “Stomach Striker” Class Warship for one was described to bewhat was essentially a huge mobile battering ram, smashing and decimating otherships on impact both from speed and sheer weight alone despite lacking a ram -a mistake which the Romans would and did not ever make historically during thesame time period. They are depicted below here as follows:

因为这项中国人的新发明:船尾舵的出现,取代了先前使用的方向桨,这使中国船只与罗马同行一样,非常适合在外海中航行。这样他们就能与其国际同行交换商品与服务了。
一位汉朝人,在其著作《南国轶事》中提到,汉朝拥有能容纳700人的商船(这是罗马最大船只的2倍),还有能装下重达260吨的货物的船只(这就比罗马最大船只少得多了,后者能装下600吨的货物,大约是汉朝最大船只的2.3倍)
王在其书中这样描绘该船:
“这些船只出海时无需避开强风巨浪,借助于倾斜的船桅,船只速度可以最大化,这些船桅可以让帆接收到风的力量,而且能消除船员长期伴随高杆的焦虑”
虽然彼时中国没有常备海军,但他们也保留了一支能够在海上进行战争的后备军事力量,如果到达战争场合就可以启用(例如在公元前111年,这支力量就被用于入侵越南,彼时,汉朝海军陆战队员在南越王国(公元前204-11年)的东海岸登陆,迅速打击了越南本土的防卫力量)
据说,汉帝国海军本身也非常的多样化。在汉朝时期,有4级主要的战舰,其中包括“飞翼”级、“突胃”级、“仙桥”级和“尖塔”级(译者自行脑补的,找不到资料)。
据传,“突胃”级战舰本身是一艘巨型移动攻城锤,虽然它没有撞锤,但仅仅依靠速度和纯粹的重量就足以冲撞和蹂躏其他船只。这是罗马人在同一时期从未也不会犯的错误(指不装撞锤)。

这种船只如下图所示:



Then there were also “Spire” Class Battleships, which wereessentially oversized floating fortresses; the naval equivalent of siegetowers. They could house up to countless hundreds of men equipped with siegeengines, allowing them to easily overwhelm a fort or city’s defences once theygot up “close and personal”. That was supposing that they ever got therehowever, as their large size often meant that they were also highly impracticalto field, and an easy target to destroy via the launching of many flamingprojectiles en masse and in unison at a single concentrated area.
Their inhumanly large sizes, made for what was essentially“shooting fish in a barrel”; often the foremost priorities of enemy fireships(as self-evident below in this artist’s impression):

接着轮到“尖塔”级战舰了,这种船基本上是一种超大型的浮动堡垒;相当于海军的攻城塔。一旦它们相互联系起来,则可容纳数之不尽的满副攻城器械的士兵,足以轻松压制一座城堡或城市的防御工事。人们认为汉朝的海军已经到达此种程度了。然而由于这些战舰超大的尺寸,通常意味着对战场来说是不切实际的。而且如果对其集中的区域发射各类燃烧弹的话,它们就很容易成为靶子。

它们残暴的尺寸,从本质上来说,就是为了“在桶里捉鱼”而生的;通常会是敌方船只的优先打击目标(以下的艺术作品已经不言自明的展示了这种船只):



If compared to land based military units in fact, the Wing Classwas the equivalent of chariots, Stomach Strikers to battering rams, Spire Shipsto mobile assault towers and Bridge ships to the Imperial Cavalry.
Verdict: As fanciful and exotic as Chinese Naval technology may appearto some, when objectively viewed from an impartial third party point of view,it becomes fairly apparent that Roman ships were usually qualitatively betterthan their Chinese counterparts. The fact also that Rome possessed a standingNavy whilst Han China did not, deeply implies their superiority in the fieldsof Naval Technology, an expertise which they also partially acquired from thePhoenicians and Greeks. The Chinese of course, still did make some outstandingcontributions themselves in this field as well however. Rome: 4; Han: 3.

如果与陆基军事单位相比,实际上,“飞翼”级大致相当于战车,而“突胃”级则相当于攻城锤,“尖塔”级则是移动攻城塔,“仙桥”级那就是汉帝国的骑兵了。

结论:中国海军技术在一些人看来可能会显得有些怪诞和异乎寻常,从第三方的客观角度上看,罗马军舰的质量通常要比汉朝军队方面好得多。事实上,罗马拥有一支常备海军,而汉朝则没有。这也意味着他们在海军技术领域的优势,不过他们也从腓尼基人和希腊人那里获得了部分专业技术知识。当然了,中国人在这方面仍然做出了一些杰出贡献。此轮,罗马与汉朝,比分为4:3。
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
 楼主| 发表于 2018-3-17 22:30 | 显示全部楼层
Aeronautics
The Romans appeared to not have been all too enthusiastic whenit came to the fields of Aeronautical Engineering, and presumably would haveborrowed off the achievements of the Greeks. Although the records available forscholarly use today seldom mention anything with regards to an Imperial Roman“Flying Machine”, we do know that roughly 2,400 years ago, a Greek by the nameof Archytas had already been known to have introduced the notion of a “SteamPowered Pigeon”.
Considered to be the world’s first artificial, self-propelledflying device, Archytas’ Pigeon was hollow on the inside, made out of wood andwas shaped cylindrically with wings projected out to both sides of its body.The front meanwhile, was pointed in the shape of an actual pigeon’s beak. Itwas described to be quite aerodynamic, allowing it to reach maximum potentialwith regards both to velocity and flying distance.
Concept drawings for the original Flying Pigeon, as firstinvented by Archytas:

航空学

当谈及航空工程领域时,罗马人似乎就没有什么热情了,他们大概借用了希腊人的成就吧。尽管目前来说,学术界可用的记录很少提及到罗马帝国“飞行器”的任何内容,但我们知道,大约在2400年前,一个名为阿契塔的希腊人发明了“蒸汽动力鸽子”的概念。
这玩意被认为是世界上第一个人造自行飞行装置,阿契塔所造的鸽子,其内部是空心的,由木头制成,形状为圆柱形,翅膀突出到身体的两侧,其前部,被制成了鸽子嘴的形状。据传,它具有相当的空气动力学特性,可以在速度和飞行距离方面达到最大潜力:



The opening of Archytas’ Pigeon was then connected to a boiler,which, as it begun to heat up, acted to create more and more steam, eventuallyexceeding the mechanical resistance of the connection, prompting the Pigeon totake flight along a suspended and lengthy wire, for roughly 200 metres beforecoming to a halt. Though thoroughly a Ancient Greek invention, it is quitelikely that the Romans which eventually conquered Greece in its entirety, wouldeventually have come to also be quite familiar with such a concept themselves.
Roughly around the times Archytas in the East meanwhile, theChinese had also been conducting flight experiments themselves, which saw thefirst introductions of a “Bamboo Helicopter”, debuting originally as a child’stoy. The bamboo helicopter flew, when a stick attached to its rotor was spun,creating the lift needed to fly when released from the appropriate heights.
An artist’s impression of Ancient Chinese children playing withthese so called “Bamboo Helicopters”:

“阿契塔鸽子”的开口处连接到锅炉上,这时候它开始加热,从而产生越来越多的蒸汽,最终突破连接件的机械阻力,促使鸽子沿着事先连好的线上飞行,大约能飞行200米。尽管这完全是一项古希腊发明,但最终完全征服希腊的罗马人,很可能最终非常熟悉这样的概念。
与此同时,在与阿契塔大约同时代的东方,中国人也一直在进行飞行实验,汉朝第一次见证了“竹蜻蜓”的出现,最初是作为孩子们的玩具首次出现的。当连接在其转子上的竹棒旋转时,可以产生出飞行所需的升力,从而可带动竹蜻蜓飞行。

以下是一张画作,描绘了古代中国孩子们玩这种所谓的“竹蜻蜓”的情景:



As for Aeronautical innovations made during the course of theHan Dynasty itself meanwhile, in great contrast to their Roman counterparts,the Han Chinese were able to make quite a few native developments andinventions themselves.
The Chinese kite, was one of these many aforementioneddevelopments. The kite (whilst invented prior to the Han Era, was meanwhilesignificantly improved during it) was not only created as a means to transportmessages to far off locations, but was also used to scare the enemies of theChinese by mere appearance, as gravity defying objects were not a common sight,equally for all of China’s citizens alike.
In this respect, Kites were thus also made out of bamboo,because the sounds it was reported to make resembled the Chinese words of “fu,fu” (“beware, beware”), actingto further intimidate the soldiers of the opposition. Bamboo also made for astrong, light framework. A kite’s flying line meanwhile was made of Silk, foradded tenacity.
A modern day Chinese Kite, which still partly resembles kitesfrom the Han Era:

至于汉朝时期其自身的航空技术创新,这就与其罗马同行形成鲜明对比了,汉朝人能够自己制作不少本土发明。
中国风筝,就是上述的众多发明之一。风筝(虽然是在汉代之前就发明了,但是大幅改良确是在汉代)的发明,不仅能将信息从一地传送到远方,而且仅凭其外表,就能吓唬敌军了,因为反重力装置并不常见,对于中国人民来说也是如此。
在这方面,风筝是由竹制成的,因为这个发音类似于中国的文字—“伏”字(当心堤防的意思),可进一步威胁敌军。竹子也可以制成轻型化且坚固的框架。风筝的线则由蚕丝制成,这是为了增强韧性。

现代的中国风筝,任然部分类似汉代风筝:



An early version meanwhile, of the Hot Air Balloon known as the“Sky Lantern” was meanwhile invented during the last years of the Chinese HanDynasty, by a strategist known as Zhuge Liang.
The Ancient Chinese, for hundreds of years had alreadyunderstood that as the temperature in a certain enclosure accelerated, theresulting heated air subsequently rose to the top, because it was less densethan the air surrounding it. Using this knowledge, they applied these ideas tocreate a Sky Lantern. A paper balloon to this extent was created to engulf asmall lamp which was placed inside it, allowing the lantern to defy gravityaltogether.
Zhuge Liang was the inventor of the aforementioned product,which he used to frighten the enemies of his commander-in-chief, Liu Bei away.Aside from such a major development however, there is also evidence in supportof the notion that the Han Chinese "solved the problem of aerialnavigation" using said balloons, hundreds of years before the rest of theworld did 1,500 years later.
A Modern Chinese “Sky Lantern” (which has changed very littlesince the times of the Han Dynasty):

早期版本的热气球,人称“天灯”,是由汉代末期战略家诸葛亮发明的。。
彼时的古代中国人几百年前就已经认识到,当某个特定区域的温度上升后,由此产生的热空气也会随之上升,因为它的密度低于周围的空气。利用这些知识,他们将这些想法应用于制作天灯上。先制作一个纸质气球,然后将一盏小灯至于其中,如此,天灯就成为了一个反重力装置。
诸葛亮是前述装置的发明者,他利用这玩意帮助其主公刘备吓走了敌军。除了这项重要发现之外,也有证据显示,汉朝人还解决了使用气球时的空中导航的问题,这比世界其他国家早了1500年。

现代中国的“天灯”(自汉代以来,其变化非常小):



Verdict: As the Romans have not really been recorded as having had manynative innovations in the fields of Aeronautics themselves, their Han Chinesecounterparts automatically win by default. Even with the Greek invention of theFlying Pigeon however, Rome’s innovations in this particular area, certainlyfall short of the Chinese developments of the Kite and Hot Air Balloon duringthe Han Era. Rome and Han: 4 all.

结论:
由于并没有记录显示罗马本身在航空领域有太多的原创发明,所以其对手汉朝人此轮自动获胜。就算加上希腊的发明:飞行鸽子,罗马在该领域的创新,也明显落后与汉朝,而后者发明了风筝和热气球。此轮下来,罗马与汉朝,比分为4:4。

Materials Engineering

Both the Han and Roman Empires had many unique materials whichtheir respective counterparts did not get around to using in the same timeperiod.
The Romans for one were known to have greatly excelled atproducing Glass derived objects, the likes of such were considered to be vastlysuperior to other comparable wares, which were alternatively made from preciousmetals such as silver or gold. They did not just exist to be used by the RomanUpper Class, but were also mass produced to such an extent by the end of theEarly Imperial Era, that glassware was often also used as cups, bowls, plates,bottles, and other everyday containers.
An example of Roman glassware, as commonly encountered in theImperial Era:

材料工程

汉朝与罗马帝国二者都有许多独特的材料,但二者的同行们并没有在同一时期使用。
众所周知,罗马人在制造玻璃制品方面的技艺非常出色,诸如此类的物品被认为远优于其他类似的产品,它们由贵金属如银或金制成。它们不仅仅只是被罗马的上层阶级所使用,而且在早期帝国时代的末期也被大量生产,这些玻璃器皿通常被用作杯子、碗、盘子、瓶子和其他日常容器。

以下是罗马玻璃器皿的一个例子,这是罗马帝国时代很常见的东西:



Both the Roman Vitriarii (glass makers) and his complement; theDiatretarii (glass cutters) alike, by the times of the Imperial Era, couldalready use a variety of techniques to transform simple glass vessels intohighly decorative pieces. Though initially Republican Roman glass was oftenopaque, glass making throughout the reign of the Empire had begun to progresssteadily to such an extent, that by the end of the Flavian Dynasty (69–96 AD),colourless glass had begun to emerge for the first time in the History of Man.
During the Imperial Era in addition, Roman glass was also ableto be artificially manipulated to such an extent, that glasses of colour couldalso be produced simply by increasing or decreasing the amount of presentoxygen, whilst the glass was still in production within the furnace itself. Butlater on yet still, the Romans had imminently found a better way to produce colouredglass, and from then on simply added small amounts of metal to the mix, inorder to achieve a certain shade or tint.
They discovered for example, that the adding of Lead, would leadto a yellowish colour. Copper equalled blue, green and red, Cobalt to dark blueand while, whilst adding Manganese to the mix returned the colours of pink andred.
In this way, they were also able to invent “Cameo” Glass, bymixing and experimenting with different types of colours, all infused into one.Such a development in time lead them to create the famous Portland Vase, acameo glass object which was produced in the initial years of theJulio-Claudian Dynasty (14–68 AD), and can be seen below:

在罗马,不仅玻璃制造工人,甚至其玻璃切割人员,都已掌握各种技艺,可将简单的玻璃容器加以豪华装潢加工。虽然最初罗马共和国的玻璃通常是不透明的,但整个帝国时期的玻璃制造工艺,已经开始稳步发展到相当的高度,在弗拉维王朝末期(公元69-96年),无色玻璃在人类历史上首次出现了。
而在罗马帝国时期,罗马人也有能力将玻璃通过人工技巧加工到相当的水平。而且可简单地通过增加或减少氧气的含量来生产彩色玻璃,不过这个时候玻璃任然是被置于熔炉内加工的。但后来,罗马人很快便发现了一种更好的方法来生产彩色玻璃,从那时起,只需将少量金属添加到混合物中,便可实现某种特定的色调。
比如,添加铅,便可产生黄色,添加铜可产生蓝色、绿色和红色,钴则可产生深蓝色,而往混合物中添加锰你将得到红色或粉红色。
通过这种方法,他们还发明了宝石玻璃(多层套色加浮雕的玻璃),通过将不同颜色进行混合和实验,然后将其全部融入玻璃中。这种技术的发展,导致他们创造出著名的“波兰特花瓶”,

下图显示了朱里亚·克劳狄王朝(公元14-68年)初期生产的浮雕玻璃瓶:



Apart from the Portland Vase however, the most famous of objectwith regards to Roman Glassware would had to have been the “Lycurgus Cup”,forged sometime in the 4th Century AD. Created from combining red and greencoloured glass together, the thick layers of the said material which was usedto forge the cup, were take away altogether, to leave behind a figure attachedto the main body of the vessel only by the use of a solitary hidden bridge ofglass.
Most notably, the cup was made from “Dichroic Glass”, which wasspecial because it actually changed colours based on the presence or absence oflight. It is depicted below, it was green when it was placed in the shadows,but red when it was placed in the light (which is why it is often regardedtoday as one of the earliest examples of nanoengineering in history):

除了波兰特花瓶之外,关于罗马玻璃器皿,最著名的的东西那无疑得是“莱克格斯杯”了。大概是在公元4世纪的某个时间铸造的。将红色和绿色的彩色玻璃组合在一起,那些用于铸造杯子的比较厚的材料被移除掉了,通过采用独立的隐藏式玻璃桥,便可在杯体上留下图案。

而最赫赫有名的杯子是由“双色玻璃”制成,这是一种非常特殊的杯子,因为它实际上是根据光线的存在或消失来改变颜色的:



Apart from innovations made in the fields of glass, the Romansalso came up with the concept of Roman Concrete (likewise also not used by theChinese), better remembered in antiquity by its proper name: “Opus Caementicium”.Forged through a combination of quicklime, pozzolana, and pumice, RomanConcrete came to be used in a variety of different structures.
For 700 years in fact, concrete was one of the primary materialsused by the Romans to construct their buildings. Not only did it act toliberate the Romans from the use of just stone and brick materials, but it alsoenabled the Romans to come up with entirely new yet extremely complex designfeatures.
Historian Donald Robertson recounts the effects of this newlyintroduced phenomenon as follows:
“Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a new and revolutionarymaterial. Laid in the shape of arches, vaults and domes, it quickly hardenedinto a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains thattroubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick.”
Modern tests, seeking to evaluate the tenacity of OpusCaementicium have concluded it to be as strong in certain areas as PortlandConcrete, with a compressive (rather than tensile) strength of 200 kg/cm^2.Such a trait acted to make Rome’s buildings, materially resistant to such anextent, that even 2,000 years later, there are still many well preserved Romanruins littered all across Europe, North Africa, and the Levant.
A photo depicting the Roman invention of the Arch as follows (aconcept which was only made possible due to Roman concrete):

除了在玻璃领域的创新之外,罗马人也提出了“罗马混凝土”的概念(同样的,中国人也没有采用),那些古迹很好的记录了它的名字:“OpusCaementicium”。由生石灰、火山灰和浮石的组合制作而成,罗马混凝土被用于各种不同的建筑结构。
事实上,700年来,混凝土都是罗马人用来建造建筑物的主要材料之一。它不仅仅将罗马人从使用砖石材料中解放出来,并且使罗马人创造出了全新且极其复杂的设计特征。
历史学家Donald Robertson叙述了这种新发明,如下所叙:
“混泥土,就像罗马人所知的那样,是一种全新的材料革命。以拱门、拱顶和穹顶的形状摆放,可迅速硬化成刚性物质,而且没有多少内部冲击和应力变化,而此前这些内部冲击和应变会使砖石结构建筑物的建造者陷入困境。”
人们试图用现代测试方法评估Opus Caementicium(罗马水泥)的韧性,测试结果是,其在某些方面与波特兰混凝土一样坚固,其抗压强度(注意不是抗拉强度)为200 kg /cm^2。这种特性,使罗马的建筑、材料抗压性达到了相当高的程度。即使是在2000年之后,仍有许多保存完好的罗马废墟遍布整个欧洲,北非和黎凡特。

下图显示了罗马发明的拱门(只有采用罗马水泥才有可能实现的建筑概念):



The Han Dynasty on the other hand, also likewise saw someinteresting developments in the fields of Materials Engineering. Though neitherthe glass nor concrete were known to Chinese civilization at this point intime, the Han did have a few native contributions which the Romans likewise didnot produce for whatever reason that may be.
Paper was first invented during the times of the Late HanDynasty, supposedly by a Eunuch called CaiLun. The raw materials which Chinesepaper was said to have been produced with, namely worn fishnet, bark and cloth,were extremely easy to get a hold of, allowing it to have been produced bothcheaply and en masse.
Paper was a vast improvement to the writing materials which hadpreceded it, during the Warring States Period before (476–221 BC). Back then,bamboo slips were used to write on, but due to the amounts which one wouldrequire in order to write a book, was often highly impractical and orinconvenient to use. Books as a consequence prior to the Han Era, tended to notjust be confusing to read (for certain topics), but physically difficult for apotential reader to carry.
A page from the oldest surviving book in the world, writtenmerely 30 years after the usurpation of the Han Dynasty (in 220 AD) during thesucceeding civil war era of the Three Kingdoms Period (220–80 AD):

而汉朝在材料工程领域也取得了一些有趣的发展。虽然彼时的中华文明还不熟悉玻璃和混泥土,但汉朝也有一些本土的发明贡献,而罗马在任何情况下都不可能实现这一的发明。
纸张是在东汉时期被发明出来的,据说发明者是一位名叫蔡伦的太监。据说中国生产纸张的原材料包括:破渔网、树皮、织物,这些材料都非常容易获得,所以能实现大规模生产且成本很低。
纸张相比以往的书写材料,是有巨大的进步的,在战国时期(公元前476-公元前221年),人们用竹简来写字,但由于写一本书需要大量的竹简,这就使其变得很不切实际了,或者说不方便使用。这导致的结果是,汉代以前的书籍读起来不仅令人十分困惑(在某些主题上),而且对于读者来说,搬动起来也比较困难。
以下的一页纸,来自于世界上现存最古老的书籍。写于汉代被篡位后大约30年,彼时正处于三国时代的内战时期(公元220年~280年):



The introduction of paper meanwhile, eliminated such an innatedisadvantage, and was naturally as such adopted throughout the lands of the“Celestial Empire”.
Porcelain was also another material which was discovered duringthe Han Era by Chinese scientists, one which was also not used by the Romans onthe Western end of the Eurasian Continent. The oldest extant “Blast Furnaces”were of course invented by Chinese civilization prior to the reign of the HanDynasty by hundreds of years. With temperatures going up to at least 1200°C bythe times of the Han Empire however, this was what permitted the Chinese tocreate a new type material for the first time ever, in its history rememberedtoday as Porcelain.
Porcelain, was a type of dust which had bonding and waterproofqualities making it highly appropriate to use as the basis to make bowls, jugsand dishes. The importance of China’s porcelain advancements cannot beoverstated. Even during the Han Dynasty, the Chinese had already developed theabilities make their porcelain wares so durable to such an extent, that even tothis day, the porcelain that is retrieved still retains much of its originalpaint from 2,000 years ago.
A porcelain pillow dating back to the Han Dynasty, assumednowadays to still be intact with its original paint:

纸张发明之后,弥补了书写系统的先天劣势,很自然的,纸张在这片“天朝上国”的土地上被广泛采用。
另外,瓷器这种材料也是由汉代中国科学家发明的,彼时欧洲大陆西部的罗马还没有这种材料。自然而然,世界上现存最古老的“鼓风炉”也是由统治中华文明几百年的汉朝发明的。在汉帝国时期,烧瓷器的炉子内的温度能升高到至少1200℃,这样,中国人第一次制造出一种新型材料,那就是瓷器。
瓷器,其实是一种黏土,它具有粘性和防水的特征,这种材料非常适合制作碗,壶和盘子。所以在瓷器方面进步的重要性绝非浪得虚名。即便是在汉代,中国已经有能力将瓷器制作得十分耐用了。即使是到了今天,出土的瓷器任然保持着其2000年前的色彩。

汉代的瓷质枕头,至今任然保持着原始色彩:



The last Chinese material which the Romans did not havemeanwhile, but was used extensively by Sino civilization during the course ofthe Han Dynasty, was of course silk. Silk had of course already been around forhundreds of years by this point in time, but during the Han Dynasty especiallywas further advanced by Chinese scientists with regards to objects whichderived from the aforementioned material.  
Highly desired by all the empires of Eurasia alike, silk was notjust used as clothing material by the Han Chinese, but also as fans, wallhangings and when paper was not available, writing material. Sericulture hadalready been around for 3,400 years by the start of Han Era China, allowing theHan Chinese to have had hundreds of life times worth of experience in everymatter of relating to silk.
More specifically, during the course of the Han Empire, silk asa material evolved to be finer and stronger, the former was specificallyevident in one example where 220 warp threads/cm were woven in a particular setof clothes. Different breeds of silkworms meanwhile, were used to crossbred toproduce many different types of new silkworms, who were multi-talented to sucha degree that they could produce threads with different qualities useful to theweavers.
Not produced anywhere else in the world at the time, the Chinesejealously guarded their secrets from all of Eurasia for the next 200 yearsafter the Han Era ended. Seen below was a Han Era silk brocade:

最后一种罗马人没有的,在汉代时期,中华文化圈里广泛使用的材料,当必然就是丝绸了。当然了,在汉代时期,丝质品已经存在数百年了。但也是在汉代,中国科学家使上述材料(丝绸)得以长足发展。
欧亚大陆上的所有皇帝都对丝绸趋之若鹜,汉朝人不仅用丝绸来做衣物,也用它来制成扇子、壁挂。当无法获取纸张时,丝绸还被用来当做书写材料。在汉代起始之时,蚕桑业已经存在了大约3,400年,汉朝人在涉及丝绸的每件事上都有数百年的经验。
更具体的说,在汉帝国时期,丝绸这种材料发展得越来越出色而且坚固,举个例子,一件衣服上每平方厘米上编制了多达220根细线。与此同时,不同品种的蚕杂交,可产生许多不同类型的新蚕种。这些蚕宝宝们多才多艺,可以产出不同品质的丝线供织工使用。

当时世界上没有任何地方生产过丝绸,汉朝灭亡后,中国人满怀猜疑地守护着这个秘密而没有透露给欧亚大陆上的任何国家。以下为汉代的丝绸锦缎:



Verdict: This is where things get difficult. The issue is that bothcivilizations were highly advanced with regards to Materials Engineering, butthey both excelled at different things and therefore non comparable aspects ofcivilization. Thus, it would neither be wise, nor fair, nor even productive tonominate a winner at the clear expense of the other. The point shall go both toImperial Rome and China. Both made several indispensable innovations. Rome andHan: 5 all.

结论:
有点让我左右为难。问题在于,两个文明在材料学方面的进步都很大,但是他们擅长的事物完全不同,所以在文明方面不具备可比性。因此这既不明智也不公平,所以我不能牺牲一方而选另一方为胜利者。所以罗马与汉朝应该各得一分。因为二者都做出了几项不可或缺的创新。此轮,罗马与汉朝比分为5:5。

Mathematics
Roman advances in the realm of the Mathematical sciences weredisappointingly few, going so far as to even be next to minimal (to put itbluntly). Few figures of prominence arose during the reign of the Empire, andfewer advances still were made with regards to mathematical theory.
And the reason for this was simple, the Romans; a supremelypragmatic peoples with little need for the notions of “Pure” Mathematics,concentrated instead on Applied Mathematics, which they frequently used inmatters pertaining to Economy and Engineering. And not only that, but the mostmathematically inclined region of the Empire (Greece), had already beenruthlessly suppressed by the former Republic halfway into the 1st Century BC.
The most notable exception to Rome’s issues in this fieldhowever came with the adoption of Roman numerals. The aforementioned system wasextremely complex, but for hundreds of years still allowed Roman society tofunction without issue. Therefore, the author is forced to conclude that thesystem wasn’t really as inefficient as some have made it out to be.
The Roman numerals “LII” (52) on the crown of the entrance tothe Colosseum:

数学领域

罗马在数学领域的进步就有点令人失望了,甚至几乎没有(恕我直言),在帝国统治整个期间,几乎没有突出的表现,而且在数学理论方面也没有取得什么进展。
原因很简单,罗马人民超级务实的人,几乎不需要“纯粹”的数学概念,而是把精力集中在应用数学上,他们经常在经济和工程方面使用应用数学。不仅如此,对数学极度热衷的几个地区(希腊),早在公元前1世纪的时候也被前共和国(指罗马共和国)残酷镇压了。
罗马在这个领域最显着的例外,那便是采用罗马数字。上述的(数学)系统非常复杂,但几百年来仍然使罗马社会井井有条地运作着。因此,作者断定该系统并不像有些人所说的那样低效。

罗马数字“LII”(52),刻在罗马斗兽场入口处的顶部:



Still, because the system was inherently difficult to grasphowever, this often acted to further discourage Roman mathematicians frommaking crucial advances in the fields of advanced arithmetic, by ensuring thatall such developments were highly improbable if not outright impossible. It wasa base 10 system, but did not appear to have a concept representing notions ofthe “0” (neither did Han China however).
There is evidence however that like their Eastern counterpartson the far side of the Eurasian continent, they did use the abacus to asomewhat high degree.
The Han Dynasty by stark contrast meanwhile, was considered tobe one of China’s many “Golden Ages” with regards to the field of theoreticalmathematics.
Though the Chinese, much like their Roman counterparts didn’thave a concept for zero either, they did however leave it blank in theircalculations. Mathematical proof for the Gougu’s/Pythagoras’ Theorem (勾股定理) was discoveredand recorded in the Han Chinese treatise, “The Arithmetic Classic of the Gnomonand the Circular Paths of Heaven” (周髀算經).
The text for one, asserted that the hypotenuse of a right-angledtriangle, was equal to the square of the other two sides combined (C^2= A^2+B^2). This is depicted below as follows:

不过由于该(计数)系统本身难以掌握,这往往会进一步阻碍罗马数学家在高级算术领域取得重大进展,可以很确定的说,(由于这个系统的存在)数学的发展是不太可能的,如果不是完全不可能的话。它是一个十进制的系统,但似乎没办法表示“0”的概念。

然而,有证据表明,其遥远的东方同行在使用算盘上已经达到一种高度了。
与此同时,汉代与罗马形成了鲜明的对比,被认为是中国在理论数学领域中的“黄金时代”之一。
虽然中国人像他们的罗马同行一样,也没有“零”的概念,但是他们在计算过程中留下了空白(作为零)。
“勾股定理”的数学证明在汉学论文中被发现和记录,这本书叫《周髀算经》。

《周髀算经》中的一篇断定:直角三角形斜边的平方等于其两个直角边的平方和(C^2=A^2+B^2)。就如下图所示:



Using these instructions, the Chinese mathematician Chen Zi, andhis “apprentice” Rong Fang were able to calculate the “height” of the Sun fromthe Earth, or at least attempt a calculation anyway as it ended up beingextremely off by millions of kilometres.
Another mathematical book which not only held records of Han Eramathematics, but also for those as far back as the 10th Century BC, called the“Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art” (九章算術), was the firstin the world meanwhile to reference the use by the Chinese of negative numbers,apart from right angled triangles, square roots, cube roots and even methodsfor matrices.
The Chinese counting system referenced the use of negativenumbers via the use of counting rods. Numbers below “blank” were representedwith black counting rods, whilst their positive counterparts by red rods instark contrast. And although decimals had already been in use since the timesof the Bronze age Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC), the text was also the first toreference the existence of decimal fractions as a means to solve equations, andrepresent measurements.
A page from the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art:


利用这些知识,中国数学家“陈子”与他的学徒“荣方”能计算出太阳到地球的高度,或者说至少试图进行计算,不管如何,结果最终会偏离数百万公里。
另一本数学书籍,不仅记录了汉代数学,而且还记录了公元前10世纪的数学,这本书就是《九章算术》,这本书第一次证明了中国人使用负数,除此之外,《九章算术》还提及了直角三角形、平方根、立方根,甚至矩阵算法。
中国计数系统使用计数棒来引用负数。“空位”以下的数字用黑色计数棒来表示,用红色的计数棒与前者形成鲜明对比。尽管在青铜时代—商朝就已经开始使用小数点了,但这本书,是第一本引用小数来作为解决方程式的手段。

《九章算术》的其中一页:



Similarly, the Gaussian Elimination was also mentioned in thetext, recorded under the title of the “Array Rule”. Pi, which was thought toexactly equal 3 up until the dawn of the Han Dynasty was meanwhile bombardedwith many alternate suggestions including 3.1497, 3.1590, and 3.1670.
Dissatisfied with such efforts, the inventor of the Seismoscope,and Han astronomer Zhang Heng attempted to improve such efforts with his ownestimates. He had noted that the area of a square as opposed to the area of itsinscribed circle, would have a ratio of 4:3. Its hypothetical volume as suchwould be 4^2 : 3^2. And if D represents diameter, whilst V is taken to bevolume, Zhang came up with the following formula:
D^3 : V = 16:9 or V = 9/16 * D^3
Noting that his formula was still wrong however with regards tothe diameter, he added an extra 1/16 * D^3 onto the equation, correcting downbelow as follows:
V = 3/8 * D^3
Now, since he had previously discovered the volume of the cubeto the inscribed sphere at 8:5, the square area’s ratio to the inscribedcircle, had to be 8^1/2 : 5^1/2. And therefore, Pi was 10^1/2 or 3.162, whichwas still inaccurate however, it was only immediately after the Han by a fewyears when another Chinese mathematician, Liu Hui correctly approximated π at3.14159.
The Han Chinese numeral system:


同时,这本书还提及了“高斯消元法”,在《方程》一章中。“π”,直到汉代初期,还被认为等于3,不过后来遭到很多答案的炮轰,比如3.1497、3.1590和3.1670。
由于不满足于这样的结果,地震仪的发明人、汉朝天文学家张衡,试图用他自己的估算来改进这个结果。张衡发现,正方形的面积与其内切圆面积的比值为4:3,那么其假设体积之比则为4^2 : 3^2。如果用D代表直径,同时用V代表体积,张衡得出了以下方程:
D^3:V=16:9或者V=9/16*D^3.
需要注意的是,他的公式在直径方面任然是错误的,不过他在这个等式上又加了一个额外的1/16 * D^3,如下所示。
V = 3/8 * D^3。
好了,由于之前张衡已经发现,立方体与其内切球的体积之比为8:5,那么正方形与其内切圆的面积之比就是√8:√5了。因此,π的值为√10,或者大约是3.162,虽然任然不是很准确,但是在汉朝灭亡之后,立刻就有另一个数学家—刘徽,他比较正确的计算出了π的值---3.14159.

汉朝人的数字系统:



Mathematical progress was also made in the fields of Music. 12tones originally, were thought to have existed on the musical scale, but wereimproved during the Han Era to cover 60 tonnes, a number 5 times greater thanpreviously. Jing Fang, the Chinese mathematician responsible for such adiscovery also realized that 53 perfect fifths (a musical intervalcorresponding to a pair of pitches with a frequency ratio of 3:2), was roughlyequal to 31 octaves.
By calculating the difference to be 177,147 / 176,776, Jingreached the same value for the “53 Equal Temperament” duly as discovered inEurope roughly 1,650 years later by German mathematician Nicholas Mercator.
Verdict: By default, the Chinese win a point here simply due to thenumber of important discoveries they historically made, relative to their Romancounterparts. Which is not to say that the number of discoveries attainedimplies that is one is definitely more advanced than the other, but it wasrather the lack of any Roman innovations in the fields of Mathematics, whichreally condemned them in this round. Rome: 5; Han: 6.

汉朝在音乐领域也取得了计数的进步。人们原本认为:音阶之存在12个音调。但在汉朝,音调的个数提高到了60个,五倍于先前的数量。数学家京房促使了这个进步,他还发现:53个纯五度(一个音程,对应一对频率比为3:2的音高)大致等于31个八度。
通过计算计算177147/176776之间的差数,京房得到了“53平均律”,这与德国科学家NicholasMercator在1650年之后得到的数值相同。

结论:
毫无疑问,中国人在这一领域赢得一分。因为与罗马相比,他们在历史上有许多重大发现。也不是说发现数量比较多,就意味一方比另一方更先进,但是罗马在数学领域的确缺乏创新,这一轮应该批评一下罗马。此轮,罗马与汉朝,比分为5:6。

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Civil and Structural Engineering
The Romans were the undisputed masters of Civil Engineering withregards to the Western half of Eurasia, unchallenged to such an extent that ahuge portion of their former buildings still stand strong to this dayrelatively intact.
The Romans had 400,000 km of roads in total running through theentirety of their empire. Of this aforementioned number, roughly 85,000 km wasfully paved or roughly 21.25% of the total amount of roads. Even a thousandyears after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire (395–476 AD), Rome’sformer highways were still being used by the Medieval Europeans up until the1500s possibly.
Way stations meanwhile, were maintained all along this intricatesystem of travel infrastructure, to provide refreshments for weary travelers inneed of a good break after a long day’s travel. Officials and couriers inservice to the rich and powerful, often also had their own changing stations.All in all, on a good day, Roman citizens who were fortunate enough to usethese highways were able to move up to 800 km for every 24 hours worth oftravel.
The renowned (and also infamous) Via Appia for example spanned563 km in total, and was one of these many said roads which were utilized byduring the course of the Roman Empire:

土木与结构工程
罗马人是欧亚大陆西部地区无可争议的土木工程大师,已经到了无人可以挑战的程度,以至于他们以前的大部分建筑在今天依然保持坚固和相对完整。
罗马人总共有40万公里的道路贯穿着整个帝国。前述数字,大约有85000公里是全面铺平的,大约占总道路的21.25%。即便1000年之后西罗马崩塌之后(公元395年~公元476年),罗马的旧公路仍然被中世纪的欧洲人所使用,一直到大概16世纪。
同时,“路站”作为错综复杂的交通基础设施,一直被维护着。为那些经历了漫长的一天旅行后需要休息、疲惫的旅客提供茶点。那些服务富人和强权阶级的官员与通讯员,也拥有自己的换班据点。总而言之,如果天公作美,使用这些“高速公路”的幸运罗马市民24小时内够旅行800公里。

比如,著名的(同时也臭名昭著)的阿庇亚大道总共延伸了563公里,这是罗马帝国时期所使用的众多道路之一:



Romans roads have been claimed to have been the most advancedfor its time, until the dawn of the 19th Century merely 100 years ago. Theywere constructed by digging a pit along the length of a designated course. Thepit was then filled with rocks, gravel or sand before finally also being toppedoff with a layer of concrete. And at last, when the aforementioned had beencompleted, the process was then concluded by being paved over with the use ofpolygonal rock slabs.
The Romans were also known to be avid builders of dams. In theformer territories of Roman Iberia for example, 72 large scale water barrierswere discovered in that particular region alone. Roman dams were so expertlycrafted in fact, and so well organized to such an extent that some of them arestill being used all across Europe to this very day. Several earthen dams havealso been discovered in Britain in recent times.
The Cornalvo Dam in Spain today is still in use to this very day(its walls at least), and was built sometime in the 1st-2nd centuries AD (ithas been in operation continuously for nearly 2,000 years), it measures 194 mlong, 20 m high, and 8 m wide:

据称,直到100多年前的19世纪初,罗马人的道路一直是当时最先进的。这些道路是通过沿着指定路线的长度,不断挖掘建造的。挖掘坑道后往其中填入岩石、砂砾或者沙子,最后还会铺上一层混泥土。上述过程完成后,最后再使用多边形岩石板铺平道路。
罗马人还热衷建造大坝。比如,前罗马领土伊比利亚地区,仅在该地区就发现了72座大型水闸。实际上,罗马水坝建造得十分精巧,其结构非常的优秀,以至于至今在整个欧洲,有些大坝任然在使用。最近,在英国也发现了几座土坝。

时至今日,西班牙的Cornalvo水坝仍在使用(至少坝体还在使用),该水坝于公园1世纪~2世纪建造(已经被使用近2000年了),这座大坝长194米,高达20米,有8米宽:



The Romans also built bridges throughout their empire. A totalof 931 bridges in fact (most of which were Arch bridges) were built throughoutImperial Rome, prior to the fall of its Western half in 476 AD. Roman bridgeswere amongst the first large scale, and long lasting overpasses built inhistory.
Built with either stone, concrete or both, Roman wayovers oftenactively utilized the newly invented notions of the Roman Arch, both todecorate and strengthen the edifice as a whole. Arches acted to evenlydistribute the weight of a bridge making them stronger and longer. Directly asa consequence of such an innovation therefore, the Romans managed to constructsome incredibly lengthy bridges, far ahead of its time by hundreds of years.
A Roman bridge in Ponte da Vila Formosa, Portugal today, seenbelow:

罗马人也在其帝国建设了桥梁。西罗马帝国灭亡之前,罗马帝国总共建设了931座(大部分是拱桥)。罗马的桥梁、立交桥,其规模之巨、耐久度之长,在历史上都是首屈一指的。
罗马桥梁的建造,使用了石头或混泥土或者两种材料都使用。桥梁建设者通常也会积极采用拱桥的新概念来建设桥梁,因为拱门既可用于装饰,也可以加强整个建筑。拱门的作用是均匀分布桥梁的重量,使桥梁可以建的更长也更稳固。归功于这些创新,罗马人建造了一些令人难以置信的长桥,超前当时的时代数百年。

一座位于现今葡萄牙Ponte da Vila Formosa的罗马桥梁,见下图:



For roughly 1,000 years for example, the Romans were privilegedenough to hold the world’s record for longest overpass with regards to overalland span length. Built by a Greco-Syrian engineer called Apollodorus ofDamascus, “Trajan’s bridge” as it was called, was the structure fortunateenough to hold this honour.
It was usually suspended above 18 m of water for the vastmajority of the time. It had a total length of 1,135 metres long. There were ofcourse other lengthy bridges which the Romans were fortunate enough to utilize,including the 135 metre Pons Aemilius in Rome, or even the 182metreAlcántarabridge.
Pontoon bridges in addition (horizontally inclined ships stackedside by side to form an overpass), whilst first invented by the Chinese over1,000 years earlier during the Iron age Zhou Dynasty (De facto rule: 1046–771BC; Nominal rule: 771–256 BC), was also recorded as having been activelyutilized by the Romans during the Imperial Era.
In one particular story for example, the Emperor Caligula (37–41AD), had had a pontoon bridge built just in order to walk across the bay fromone side to the other, in order to prove a seer wrong about an earlierprophecy, which had insisted that he certainly had no more chance of becomingthe Emperor of Rome than he did of riding a horse across the Bay of Baiae.Naturally, he had to prove her wrong of course, and had a bridge built acrossit to prove his point.
A depiction of a Roman Pontoon Bridge on the column of MarcusAurelius:


举个栗子,罗马人在桥梁整体跨度方面,拥有世界最长立交桥的纪录,这个记录被保持了大约1000年。这座名叫“Trajan’sbridge”的桥梁,由叙利亚--大马士革工程师Apollodorus建造。
在过去绝大多数时间里,这座桥梁都悬浮在水面18米之上。长达1135米。当然了,罗马人还用其他比较长的桥,包括135米长的Pons Aemilius桥和182米的Alcántara桥。

另外,浮桥(水平倾斜的船舶并排堆放形成的桥),是由汉朝1000年之前的铁器时代---周朝发明的(实际时间:公元前1046年~公元前771年;名义时间:公元前771~公元前256年)。据记录,罗马人在罗马帝国时代也使用了浮桥。
就比如这个故事,皇帝卡里古拉(公元37~41年)建造了一座浮桥,以便能从海湾一侧到达另一侧,为了证明之前的预言是错误的,这个预言认为,如果他不是通过浮桥穿过拜亚湾而是起码的话,那么他成为皇帝的机会就很渺茫。他当然要证明预言是错误的,所以它修建了一座浮桥来证明其观点。

马可奥勒利乌斯柱上描绘的罗马浮桥:



Sometimes whilst building such complex infrastructure, theRomans would be forced to come to a halt due to the cruel terrain of Europe,which actively obstructed their efforts with many annoying geographicalfeatures such as hills or mountains.
The Romans, a naturally adaptable peoples as such came up withthe concept of tunnels. Tunnel construction was highly difficult for theRomans, and often took years to build since the measurements had to be precise(which was not helped in any part by the disadvantages of Roman numerals), inorder to allow tunnels to meet in the middle (as they were dug out from bothsides of the hill simultaneously during the Imperial Era).
Constructing tunnels during the Roman times was so arduous infact, that a certain 5.6 km tunnel built in 41 AD by Emperor Claudius (reigned41–54 AD) in order to drain the Fucine Lake, took 30,000 workers 11 years tobuild. Nonetheless, Roman tunnelling technology was still highly advanced forits time, especially since the aforementioned tunnel commissioned by Claudius,also had shafts which went up to 122 metres deep.
A Roman tunnel dating back to the Imperial Roman Era:

在建设如此复杂的基础设施之时,有时由于欧洲复杂的地形,工程不得不停顿下来。许多恼人的地理特征,如山丘或山脉一直都阻碍着罗马人的辛勤工作。
然而罗马人是一群很能适应环境的人,因此他们提出了隧道的概念。对于罗马人来说,建造隧道是相当困难的,由于测量必须精确,因此常需要花费数年的时间(这一点却没有被罗马人缺乏数学知识所困扰)来使隧道最终在中心点准确交汇(因为在罗马帝国时期,修隧道是从山坡两侧开挖的)。
事实上,在罗马时代建造隧道非常艰巨,公元前41的时候,皇帝克劳狄为了修建一条大约5.6公里的隧道,为了排干Fucine湖,3000名工人耗费了11年时间才建成。尽管如此,罗马的隧道技术在当时仍处于高度先进,特别由克劳狄斯指挥修建的前述隧道,其隧道的井深达到了122米。

一条能追溯至罗马帝国时代的隧道:



The greatest Roman innovations in the field of Civil Engineeringhowever, would have to be with regards to the Aqueduct. Powered entire by theforces of gravity, Aqueducts were built to withstand the test of time to suchan extent that it was literally not equalled until merely a few decades ago.The existence of such superstructures allowed for the flow of water todifferent parts of the Empire, with extreme efficiency.
At places with depressions deeper than 50 metres meanwhile,inverted siphons (pipes that must dip below an obstruction to form a"U" shaped flow path) were used to viciously force water uphill.Otherwise, the water which an aqueduct permitted to be transported, was allowedto flow naturally without human interference because of the slanted waterchannels which lay beneath it. The longest aqueduct meanwhile was said to bethe one which supplied the former city of Carthage, described as being 178 kmin length.
As for the Capital of Rome meanwhile, the existence of 11aqueducts carrying 1,000,000 cubic metres of water each day allowed the city’s1 million people to stay adequately hydrated. It should be noted however thatgiven the combined productive capacities of Rome’s aqueducts, such a dailywater supply would have been sufficient even for 3.5 million peoplehypothetically.
The Segovia Aqueduct which can still be seen today in Spain, inpristine condition as should already be self-evident, due to its use of Romanconcrete:

然而,罗马在土木工程方面最伟大的创新,那必然是引水渠了。这些隧道完全由重力驱动,这种隧道非常经久耐用,几乎追平了我们几十年前的水平了。这种引水渠的存在使得水能够以极高的效率流入罗马帝国的不同地区。
与此同时,在深度超过50米的地方,反向虹吸管(必须在障碍物下方倾斜,以形成“U”形路径的管道)被用来地迫使水流往上走。另外,引水渠还可以使水自然流动,不会受到人为的干扰,因为其下方有倾斜的水道。据说最长的引水渠是为以前的Carthage市修建的,它的长度为178公里。
至于罗马首都, 11条引水渠每天运输100,000立方米水,足以保证该市的100万人口充足的供水。
而且应该指出的是,鉴于罗马的引水渠的强大储水能力,这样的日常供水量即使对于350万人口也是足够的。

今天在西班牙仍然可以看到“塞哥维引水渠”,由于使用罗马水泥建造,其仍然保持原有屹立不倒:



Defensive walls, much like their eastern counterparts were alsoa core feature of Roman Civil Engineering. Though wall building had declinedsignificantly when compared to the times of the Roman Republic, they were stilla force to be reckoned with during the Imperial Era.
The Romans rarely just built a wall across the open country forfortificaition purposes, rather they built them primarily to protect cities.They usually built with brick and Roman concrete during the Imperial Era; animprovement from the preceding Roman Kingdom (753–509 BC) which had used drystone and sun dried bricks instead.
Thanks primarily to the Roman invention of opus caementicium,introduced previously, many Roman walls across the former territories of theRoman Empire are still standing to this very day. Though modern concrete hasbeen found to erode after only 50 years of exposure to seawater, in contrast toRoman concrete (the primary material of Roman ports) meanwhile which hassurvived intact to this day nearly 2,000 years after it was introduced.
The most famous of the Roman fortifications meanwhile, Hadrian’sWall in its heyday was 117.5 km long, 3-6 m thick and up to 6 m high. The wallhad a fort every 7.5 km meanwhile and took 6 years from 122–28 AD to complete.Due to a lack of water however, it was not made out of concrete, but had a corerather of earth or clay complemented with stones. The ruins of which can beseen below:

罗马的防御强也与东方同行的类似,也是罗马土木工程的核心特征。虽然与罗马共和国时代相比,防御墙的数量有所减少,但在罗马帝国时期,它们仍然是一股不可忽视的力量
罗马人很少只为了防御目的,而在其开阔的国家建造一堵墙,而是为了保护城市而建造的。在罗马帝国时代,他们通常使用罗马水泥和砖块来建设防御墙;这相比罗马王国时期(公元前753~509年)也是一种进步,罗马王国时期通常使用干石块与日晒砖来建防御墙。
归功于前述的opus caementicium(一种罗马水泥)这项发明,罗马帝国前领土上的许多城墙至今仍然屹立不倒。现代水泥在经过海水浸泡50年后会受到腐蚀,而罗马水泥(罗马港口的主要材料)正好相反,经过2000年的风风雨雨,任然完好无损。
最著名的罗马防御工事---哈德良长城,全长117.5公里,厚3-6米,高达6米。这座城墙每隔7.5公里就有一座堡垒,花了6年时间修建完成(公元122~128年)。由于缺水,它不是用混凝土建造的,而是用泥土或黏土加上石子混合建成的。下图是这座长城的废墟:



Although the Romans did not invent the wastage disposal systemthemselves (an invention which was already around by 3,100 BC, invented by theIndus Valley Civilization (3300–1300 BC)), they did however have a verysophisticated sanitation system meanwhile.
Roman Sanitation is best remembered still to this day forwidespread abundances of their Public Baths (Thermae). Roman Baths werepurposefully designed to have 3 separate facilities for bathing. The first wasApodyterium (Changing Room), in which a Roman citizen would undress to getready for the next stage of the bathing process.
From there, a bather would journey forth unto the “Warm Room”, afacility known as the Tepidarium, which had the sole purpose of preparing onefor the next room which was to follow, by only making it moderately hot inside.The last enclosure meanwhile was a true sauna unlike the previous, and wasknown (and rightfully so) as the “Hot Room” or Caldarium, which was complementedwith by a Labrum; a cold water fountain for self-evident reasons.
The Roman Baths at Bath, South-West England:

虽然罗马人本身并没有发明垃圾处理系统(一种在公元前3100年前就存在的系统,由印度河谷文明发明(公元前3300~1300年)),但罗马人却有一个飞叉复杂的卫生设施。
罗马的卫生设施至今仍被人们津津乐道,因为罗马的公共浴室广泛分布、数量众多。罗马浴场被有目的地设计成3个独立的洗浴设施。第一各是更衣室,在更衣室里,罗马市民脱掉衣服,然后准备进入下一个洗浴流程。
然后,沐浴者将前往“暖房”,这种暖房名为“Tepidarium”,其内部的温度比较适宜,目的是为进入下一个房间作准备。最后一个就是真正的桑拿浴室了,以“加温室”或Caldarium而闻名(实至名归),内有一个大水池,还有一个冷水源。

英国西南部巴斯市的罗马浴场:



Roman sanitation was also defined both by the Flush Toilet, anda highly sophisticated system of drains and sewage. Bath water was recycled byusing it to dispose of excrement at the public toilets. The plumbing behindcity drains meanwhile was made of terracotta. And water during the Imperial Erawas even separated as to direct high quality variants to be used in drinkingand cooking, whilst its inferior quality counterparts meanwhile was utilizedonly for fountains and baths.
Last but not least meanwhile, was the phenomenon of RomanHousing. Roman houses in general were supremely well built as a rule, but therewas often quite a substantial difference between the rich and poor. The richoften inhabited single story houses called “Villas”, centered around a conceptcalled the “Atrium”. The Atrium had no roof, and was as such vulnerable toturbulent weather, but was designed to be as such in order to collect rainwaterin the troughs surrounding the house.
A reconstructed courtyard depicting the Atrium section of aRoman Villa:

罗马的卫生设施,还以冲水厕所闻名,以及高度精细的排水设施和污水系统。洗澡水被回收,用来冲刷公共厕所的粪便。城市下水道的管道是由陶瓦制成的。罗马帝国时期的水甚至被净化成高品质饮用水,可直接用于饮用和烹饪,而其它品质较差的水则仅用于喷泉和浴缸。
最后要说的,当然了并不是说它最无足轻重,那就是罗马的房子了。一般来说,罗马的房屋通常都建造得非常好,但贫富之间通常存在相当大的差异。富人通常住着名为“Villas(别墅)”的单层住宅,被“Atrium(中庭)”包围在中间。中庭是没有屋顶的,容易受到变幻天气的影响,但这样建造的目的是为了收集房屋周围沟槽中的雨水。

罗马“别墅”重构图,下图为“中庭”部分:



The Atrium was succeeded by a second open courtyard known as thePeristylium, which included a garden and was interconnected with severaladjoining rooms; a case which was true for the Atrium before it also. Thehouses of the rich were centrally heated by a “hypocaust” (underfloor heating)and was supplied with fresh water brought direct to them from lead pipes.
The poor meanwhile lived in run down apartment blocks known as“Insulae”. Most of these shabby apartments only had two rooms at best, lackedproper facilities with running water, and was often extremely cramped anduncomfortable to live in.
Insula buildings usually had on average 6–7 apartments with theability to house over 40 separate unique individuals, despite being restrictedto a land area of 330m^2. The upper floors were especially known to be bothhazardous and poorly built however, hence most inhabitants preferred to live onthe lower to middle floors instead.
Ruins of an insula dating to the early 2nd century AD in theRoman port town of Ostia Antica:

中庭之后是第二个开放的庭院,名为“Peristylium(周柱廊)”,其中包括一个花园,这个花园与几个相邻的房间相连;,之前所说的中庭也是一样的布局。富人的房子采用“热坑”集中供暖,并用铅管直接引入淡水。
与此同时,穷人们则住在被称为“Insulae”的公寓楼里。这些破败的公寓最多只有两个房间,缺乏自来水设施,而过过于狭小,住起来也不舒服
这种大楼通常平均有6至7套公寓,尽管面积仅有330平方米,但可容纳40多个人。然而,大楼的上层建得不好,出了名的危险,因此大多数居民更愿意住在中下层。

罗马港口城市OSTIA ANTICA,“insula”居民楼废墟,可追述之公元2世纪:



In stark contrast to the Roman Empire meanwhile, few buildingsdating back to the Han Era have survived to this day for in depth study,because for the most part they were made primarily out of wood (timberdeteriorates quickly). Which by itself does not mean contrary to popular beliefthat the Han Chinese were inferior to their Western counterparts however,civilization use the means available to them to construct their buildings.
Neither stone nor marble were naturally abundant in thetraditional abodes of “China Proper”, wood by stark contrast was however hencemost Chinese buildings even to the end of the Imperial Era in 1912, were madeprimarily out of wood. In saying that though, the Han Empire was able to makesteady progress in the realms of Civil and Structural Engineering meanwhile.
The Chinese however, much unlike the Romans were not avidbuilders of bridges nor roads. Whilst the Romans built 400,000 km of roads (asmentioned before), 1/5 of which were paved, and also 931 bridges of which mostwere arched, the Chinese only had 2 arch variants out of a total of at least628 bridges (at least 67% of Rome’s numbers), and 35,400 km of roads (17.7% ofRoman total amount of roads), most of which were unpaved.
The Chinese during the Han Era, were however instead able tomake steady progress in the fields of Imperial civil engineering meanwhile. Thegreatest palace ever in the History of Man by area was built during the HanDynasty, the Weiyang “Endless” Palace, seen below:

与罗马帝国形成鲜明对比的是,可供深入研究的、能追溯至汉朝的建筑就屈指可数了。因为汉朝的建筑大部分是用木材建造的(木材很快就会腐朽)。然而,这本身并不意味着汉朝的本领不如其西方同行,但汉朝人也能采用自己的手段来建造他们的建筑物。
传统的“中国特色”住所中,石头和大理石的用量都不多。与之形成鲜明对比的是,中国建筑通常都使用木材,一直到1912的时候还是如此。尽管如此,汉帝国在土木和结构工程领域也取得了稳步进展。
然而,中国人与罗马人不一样,他们并不热衷于修建桥梁和道路。而罗马修建了40万公里的道路(就如前文所述),这些道路中有1/5是铺平的,还有931座拱桥。而在628座中国桥梁中(最少占罗马的67%),仅仅只有2座是拱桥,仅有3.54万公里的道路(占罗马总量的17.7%),其中大部分是没有铺过的。

然而,汉朝人也能力在土木工程领域取得稳步进展。人类历史上最伟大的宫殿建就于汉代,那就是“未央宫”,如图所示:



Built primarily from timber in 200 BC at the personal request ofLiu Bang, First Emperor of the Han Dynasty (reigned 202–195 BC), the WeiyangPalace was described to be 1,200 acres (4.8 km^2) in area, making it 11 timesthe size of Vatican City today, or 6.7 times larger than the existing ForbiddenCity in Beijing or approximately 72 times the area of the Versailles Palace inFrance, thus making it was one of Imperial China’s greatest engineeringendeavours during the times of the Han Dynasty. It was also known to havereached 35 metres deep below ground level.
Outside the Weiyang palace meanwhile was the great city ofChang’an, the Capital of the Han Empire, and the second largest city of Eurasiaafter Rome, with regards to their population numbering approximately around400,000 individuals. Despite the fact that the city had merely 40% of Rome’s 1million people population, Chang’an, the city of “Eternal Peace” as it wascalled in Old Chinese was 4 times as large as Rome in terms of area.
And because the city of Rome had an area of 13.73 squarekilometres with a population density of 72,833 individuals per km^2, theChang’an derived area from this figure was 54.92 km^2 which gave it apopulation density meanwhile of 7,283 individuals per km^2, or almost exactly10 times less dense than the “City of the Seven Hills” in Italy.
A reconstructed Han Era Palace at Hengdian World Studios for thesole purposes of filming:

这座宫殿以刘邦的个人需求,用木材建造,刘邦是汉朝的地位皇帝(公元前202-195年),据传,未央宫占地面积为1200英亩(4.8㎡),面积是梵蒂冈的11倍,比现存的于北京的紫禁城的面积还要大6.7倍,大约是法国凡尔赛宫的72倍。该宫殿为汉朝时期最伟大的工程之一。据了解,其建筑经达到地面以下35米的深度。
而未央宫之外则是伟大的汉朝首都---长安城,乃是欧亚大陆仅次于罗马的第二大城市,其人口数量接近40万。虽然人口只有罗马的40%(彼时罗马的人口达到100万),长安---中国古人称之为“长治久安”之城,其面积是罗马的4倍。
因为罗马的面积为13.73平方公里,人口密度为72833人/平方公里,而长安衍的面积为54.92平方公里,人口密度为7283人/平方公里,只占到“七山之城(罗马)”的1/10.

以下为横店国际影城重建的汉代宫殿,仅供拍摄之用:



Divided into 11 neighbourhoods, the rich and the aristocracywere located in the City’s south, whilst the common people (artisans andmerchants) resided in the northeast. As for the city itself meanwhile, a 12gated wall with 8 avenues surrounded the Han Capital, itself surrounded by analso 8 metre wide moat.
Each of the aforementioned avenues was roughly 45–55 metreswide, the walls were 12 metres high, whist its perimeter was 25.7 km long.Evidence for the use both of stone and brick has also been discovered from Hanarchaeological sites surrounding the modern city of Xi’an (as it is calledtoday).
Speaking of walls however, though the Chinese like the Romansoften built city barriers to the same extent in both quality and quantity,their “free roaming” fortifications on the other hand meanwhile was likely tohave been much greater than their western counterparts, all due to theexistence of the Great Wall of China.
Though the Great Wall has been built many times over - mostrecent of which was during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD) - the longestversion of the Wall was built over 2,000 years ago by the Han Chinese. TheChinese Wall was approximately 10,000 km across making it 85 times longer thanHadrian’s Wall, which to be fair was only so short because the width of Britainitself was not very wide across.
Remains of the Han Era section of the Great Wall of China todayin Dunhuang, Gansu Province, consistently 2.5 metres in height all across:


长安城分为11个社区,富人和贵族居住于城市的南部,普通人(工匠和商人)则居住于东北部。至于城市本身,是由一条有8个城门的城墙,加上8条大道所围绕,而且还由8米宽的护城河环绕着。
上述大道宽度大约是45-55米,城墙高达12米,周长为25.7公里。汉代考古遗址还发现了汉朝使用砖块与石头的证据,这些遗迹散落在现代西安(长安的现称)周围。
说到城墙,中国人与罗马人类似,无论在数量上和质量上来说,中国人都建设了与罗马类似的城市屏障。但从“开阔漫游”的城墙来说,他们的建设规模却比罗马大得多,这是由于中国长城的存在。
尽管长城已经建设多时了----最近的一次是在明朝(公元1368-1644年)--- 但是最长的部分却是由汉朝人修建。中国的长城,长度接近1万公里,85倍于哈德良长城, 坦白来讲,哈德良长城就短得多了,因为英国的宽度并不是很宽。

今天中国的汉代长城遗迹,位于甘肃敦煌,其高度始终保持在2.5米:



As the Great Wall was primarily situated in places far from thetraditional abodes of China Proper, wood could not be used to make it, andinstead the Chinese had to adapt. To this extent, sand and gravel was usedinstead for certain sections of the wall. Using rose willows and reeds, theChinese constructed the basic frames of the walls first, before piling them upin layers. Ground water with high salinity meanwhile, was used to consolidatesaid sand and gravel.
Much like Roman structures, despite experiencing erosion forover 2,000 years, because the wall was not made out of wood, it still stands tothis very day. After the Great Wall was at last finished by the Han Chinese, itwas also fortified with beacon towers placed apart for every 5 km of the HanEmpire’s northern borders. As a result, 20,000 towers ended up beingconstructed all along the Wall just for this purpose.
Beacon towers helped the Chinese to sound off warning of apreeminent invasion from abroad since at any given time it was always mannedwith garrisons upon garrisons of soldiers, who were instructed to generatesmoke during the day, and set alight torches at night (both of which can beseen up to 15 km away), in order to warn the Imperial Army of an imminentnomadic invasion from the hostile Turkic peoples known as the Xiongnu.
A Han Era beacon tower, “Yumen Pass”; one of merely 80 whichwere built during the Han Dynasty to act as countermeasure against possibleinvasion against the nomadic Xiongnu Empire:

由于长城主要位于远离中国人传统居住的地方,所以不能采用木材来建造,取而代之的是,彼时中国需要使用沙子与碎石来建造墙体。中国人先用红柳和芦苇建造了长城的基本框架,然后将他们分层堆放。然后采用高盐度的地下水来巩固上述的沙子和碎石。
与罗马的建筑结构类似,尽管经历了2000多年的风沙侵蚀,但由于墙体不是由木材建成,长城屹立至今。在汉朝最终完成长城的修建后,汉朝还用每5公里一个烽火台的形式进行了加强。为了这个目的,汉朝沿着长城建了多达2000个烽火台。,
当边境遭到入侵是,烽火台可以发出警告。因为在任何时候,烽火台都有守军驻扎。他们收到指示后,为了时刻警惕帝国遭到游牧民族---匈奴的随时入侵,一旦情况有变,他们在白天会点燃狼烟,如果是黑夜则点起火把(这两种手段在15里以外都能看到)。

一个汉代烽火台--“玉门关”;汉代建设的80个烽火台其中之一,用来作为针对游牧民族--匈奴帝国可能入侵的对策:



Beacon towers during the Han Era were usually wide at the base andnarrower at the top. Often also square-based and tapered, they were mainlylocated well inside the Great Wall for obvious reasons. Usually also built onhigher terrain than the rest of the Wall which complemented it, some of thetowers reached 10 metres in height, though on general they were more likely tobe 7 metres with regards to the average structure.
Of course, not all the sections of the Wall were made out ofsand and gravel however. “Rammed-Earth” was another material used to builtcertain sections of the Han Empire’s Great Wall, and was also used in a varietyof different types of structures as well.
Rammed-Earth was a material used by the Early Imperial Chinesewhich was essentially hardened earth. Similar to stone in both durability andhardness, Rammed Earth was made by collecting a large amount of earth, gravel,sand, silt and clay before subsequently compressing it until it was extremelydense. Like Roman concrete, Rammed Earth was also extremely resistant to thedeteriorations resultant of time. As such, most Han Era ruins that still existto this day are often found to be those that were primarily made of RammedEarth.
Ruins of the former Han Chinese rammed earth city of Gaochangtoday in Modern China:

汉代的烽火台通常建造成下宽上窄的形式,通常有方形的基座和锥形的外观。他们通常都位于长城的内部。通常建造得比的其他墙体更高,其中有些烽火台的高度达到10米,不过平均来说,它们的高度大约是7米。
当然了,不是每一段长城都是夯土随时建造的。在汉朝,“夯土”也是建造长城某些部位的材料,“夯土”也可用于其他各种不同类型的建筑结构。
“夯土”是中国早期帝国所使用的建筑材料,其本质是就是硬土。通过收集大量的泥土、砾石、沙子、淤泥和粘土,然后将它们压缩至极高的密度,从而制成夯土,其特性与石头类似,硬度高且经久耐用。与罗马混泥土类似,夯土经久耐用,性质不会随时间而恶化。因此,今天发现的大多数汉朝遗迹通常是由夯土建造的。

现代中国发现的西汉遗迹---高昌古城,是一座夯土建造的城市:



In fact, in a place where there were minimal if not absolutelyzero trees present, every Chinese structure virtually was made out of rammedearth, down to the last building.
As such, Han Era rammed earth granaries for example have beenfound to have survived to this day:

事实上,在中国、如果在一个树木很少或者根本没有树木的地方,那么那里的建筑物基本上都是由夯土建成,每一栋都是。
因此,汉朝时期的夯土粮仓可以保存至今:



Along with Han Era Watchtowers as well, this one specifically islocated in Western Gansu:

另外还有汉朝的瞭望塔,以下这座瞭望塔的具体位置是在甘肃西部:



With regards to Chinese subterranean structural engineeringmeanwhile, so far a minimum of 10,000 Han Era underground tombs have beendiscovered in Modern China today.
The tombs were made out of brick, hence they they have alsosurvived to this day apart from the fact that they were underground. The HanEra Chinese (possibly exclusively) were the most fond, and avid builders ofunderground Imperial tombs which were built for the rich, and powerful.
Brick Vaults and Domes were frequently used underground despitenot being used on the surface level. Han tombs were usually built in severalparts to contain 3 different enclosures: there was the front, side and rearchambers.
A Han Dynasty vaulted underground tomb:

至于中国的地下结构工程,到目前为止,现代中国至少发现了10000个汉代时代的地下墓葬。
这些墓葬由砖头砌成,因此即便是埋在地下也得以保存至今。汉朝人(可能是唯一的)是地下墓穴建造的狂热分子,这些墓穴皆为富人所建,功能强大。
虽然在地面上,汉朝人不经常使用拱顶结构,但是拱形结构在地下的应用十分频繁。汉代墓穴通常分成几个部分建造,以容纳三种不同的模块,它们分别是:前厅、耳室以及后室。

一座汉代拱顶墓穴:



The tomb of Prince Liu Shan for one, elder brother to Han Wudi,specifically had a front hall with window drapes and goods to accompany him inthe afterlife, with regards to the front hall. Carriages along withartificially produced horses meanwhile were located in the side chamber, whilstthe rear end contained storage goods.
Imperial tombs themselves were expertly crafted by cuttinghorizontally into the hillside of the mountains themselves, in order to forgethese great resting places for the beloved deceased. As they were exclusivelymade for the rich, the tombs were also designed to have a shaft like corridorleading onwards to a suite of rooms, in order to reflect the former layout ofthe deceased’s palace, whilst they were still alive. Essentially, the tomb wasto crafted like this as to be the dead individual’s home in the afterlife.
An Eastern Han (25–220 AD) tomb from the secondary Capital ofLuoyang:

就比如汉武帝的哥哥、皇子刘胜,其陵墓的前厅安放了窗帘以及其他陪葬物,用来陪伴其下一世。马车与人造的马匹被安放在耳室,而后室则用来储存其他陪葬物。
皇家陵墓被精心制作,它们水平地切入进山坡内部,以便为死者打造出一个宏伟的休息场所。由于它们是专为富人而造,这些陵墓还会设置犹如走廊般的竖井,然后导向至一套房间,用以反映死者生前居住宫殿的布局,就跟它们还活着一样。本质上来说,这个陵墓就是这样制作的,用以作为死者来生的家,

以下是一座东汉(公元25-220年)陵墓,位于东汉陪都洛阳:



And of course, all the luxuries which had graced them would alsobe present upon their one’s burial, including fine treasures such as gold,silver, weapons, jewellery, lacquer but most importantly also, jade.
It was from these tombs primarily, that information with regardsto the housing of the common Han people have also been discovered, in the formof ceramic and downsized replicas of real Han Era wooden architectures.
Within the areas of China Proper itself, timber was the primaryconstruction material so of course we have exactly zero remaining civilstructures from the Han Era, since they were made out of wood. Nonetheless, dueto references in both literature and by the aid of the underground ceramicmodels, there has been evidence to support the contention that the Han builtimmensely tall spires in their cities, to serve as astronomical observatories.
The houses of the rich meanwhile, in contrast to their Romancounterparts were often multi-storied. They all usually had a courtyard at thebottom, private fortifications, a balcony with balustrades, windows for everyfloor, and roof tiles to conceal the ceiling rafters. Case in point, here is anaristocrat’s home, with all the aforementioned features along with in additionwatchtowers and gatehouses:

当然了,他们生前享受的所有奢侈品也会出现在他们的葬礼上,包括金、银、武器、珠宝、漆器等精美珍品,但最重要的还有玉器。
从这些陵墓中,也可以发现普通汉朝人的住房情况。因为其中展现出了陶制缩小版的的真实汉代木结构建筑。
在中国比较适合居住地区内,木材是主要的建筑材料,所以,遗留下来的土木结构几乎没有(木结构很快会腐朽)。尽管如此,由于参考文献和地下陶制模型的帮助,有证据表明,汉朝人在他们的城市建立了非常高的尖塔,用来作为天文观测台。

同时,与罗马人正好相反,汉朝富人的房屋往往被建成多层。通常在其后部会有一个庭院,带有私人防御工事,有带栏杆的阳台,每一层都带有窗户,然后用瓦片来盖住天花板椽子。举个栗子,以下是一位富人的房子,这座房子带有上诉所有特征,另外附带了瞭望塔和门楼:



The fact that Han Era homes were often multi-storied was a veryimpressive improvement from the periods which came before. Traditionally duringthe Feudal Era (2070–221 BC), Chinese architecture placed a strong emphasis onbuilding horizontally due to the inherent weaknesses and instability of usingwood.
And yet, by the Early Imperial Era during the 426 year longreign of the mighty Han Dynasty of China, buildings were expanded intomulti-storied buildings despite these inherent weaknesses.
Another ceramic house belonging to a Han Era nobleman:

汉朝的房屋通常是多层的,这根以前那些朝代比起来,是一个令人印象深刻的进步。传统上在封建时代(公元前2070-221年),中国建筑非常强调水平建筑,因为其使用木材,有某些弱点和不稳定性。
然而,在强大的汉朝长达426年的通知中,尽管存在着一些固有弱点,建筑物任然扩展成多层建筑。

另一个陶制房屋(模型),属于一名汉代贵族。



Which is not to say that there were not multi-storied buildingprior to the Han Era (there were), but they were usually limited to 3 storiesat the absolute maximum. During the Han Era however, that was no longer thecase, and houses for the rich especially often strove to surpass such alimitation as seen below in this particular Aristocrat’s home, with 2residential towers joined by a covered bridge, interconnecting the manor (left)with its complementary watchtower (right):

也不是说汉朝之前就没有多层建筑(还是有的),但是最多也就建到3层。但是在汉朝,再也不存在这个问题了,富人家的房屋往往会努力建造以突破(以往朝代3层的限制),就如同下图这个贵族的房子,两座住宅楼由一座加顶盖的天桥连接起来,将庄园(左)与瞭望塔(右)相互连接起来:



On the other hand, we have minimal information with regards tothe housing of the common people, as the ceramic models were often used toreplicate the homes of the rich. However, what little we do know about themhowever from literary sources has forced sinologists to conclude that the pooron average lived in 1–2 story houses, made out of mud.
3 generations often dwelt under the same building together. Liketheir Roman counterparts - the Plebeians of Rome - the Nong of Han, despitebeing ranked second highest on the Chinese social hierarchy were oftenimpoverished beyond belief. As such, no irrigation for washing or for mattersrelating to toiletries existed at the time, much like the Insula blocks in theRoman Capital.
An ordinary peasant family’s home dating back to the Han Era:

另一方面,我们对于普通百姓的住房所知信息极少,因为陶质模型通常是复制了富人的房子。然而,从文学作品中我们可以窥豹一斑,汉学家得出结论:普通的穷人通常住在1~2层的房子里,用泥建成。
一座房子里通常三代同堂。与罗马类似--罗马的平民百姓、汉朝的农民,虽然在中国社会等级中排名第二,但往往是无法相信的贫穷。因此,当时不存在用于洗涤或与化妆有关供水系统。这与罗马首都的Insula街区很像。

下图为汉代的一座普通农民家庭的房屋模型:



To a much lesser extent than the Romans, the Han Administrationalso oversaw the construction of many public infrastructures throughout the HanEmpire. The Zhengguo Canal for one was restored under the wise guidance of thegreat Han Wudi, who reasoned that because silt had been building up over timeat the bottom of the canal, it had caused flooding.
Naturally, he knew he had to make repairs to it and moved to doby ordering that an all new 100 km long extension was to be made following thecontour line, above the original Zhengguo Canal. Beam, Arch and Suspensionbridges were also built during the Han Era meanwhile. And roads as mentionedpreviously, whilst nowhere near as long as Rome’s, was built all over the HanEmpire and wa made primarily out of rubble and gravel.
Dikes were maintained all over China meanwhile, to safeguardfarmland from seasonal floods. And postal and relay stations were bothintroduced and repaired.
Verdict: This is probably the toughest decision yet so far in thisanalysis, but the author believes the Romans have just slightly edged out theirHan Chinese counterparts here, by the tiniest margin possible. As such, theyhave not done enough to earn an exclusive point at the expense of their rivals.Therefore, a point must be awarded to both sides due to the complexities ofsuch a status quo. Rome: 6; Han: 7.

虽然程度不如罗马,但是汉朝政府也在监督整个汉帝国许多公共基础设施的建造。在伟大汉武帝的英明指导下,修复了郑国渠。汉武帝认为,由于淤泥在运河底部长时间积聚,导致洪水泛滥。
当然了,汉武帝知道他必须对运河进行修整,并命令沿着先前运河的轮廓线,再延长全新的100公里。同时,汉朝时期还建造了梁桥、拱桥和悬索桥。前文提到的道路,虽然远不及罗马那么长,却也整个汉帝国各地修建起来,主要用瓦砾和碎石铺成。
同时,整个中国的堤坝都得到了维护,保护农田不受季节性洪水的影响。另外,驿站也被引进,而且维护良好。

结论:这可能是目前为止最艰难的决定了,但笔者认为罗马人在这个方面微弱领先其汉朝同行。但是,罗马人的所作的事,还是不足以让他们独得一分。因此在这个方面,鉴于情况的复杂性,二者各得一分。罗马VS汉朝,比分为6:7.
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
 楼主| 发表于 2018-3-17 22:34 超大游击队员 | 显示全部楼层
Military Technology
The Roman Military still to this very day, was a world renowned,highly lethal and professional 28 Legions strong force, comprising of roughly140–168,000 men; a given in order to defend the 5 million km^2 land area of thevast Roman Empire. Naturally as such, Roman innovations in the fields of theMilitary cannot be underestimated.
The Romans were known to have used a great variety of siegeengines. Onagers for one, similar to catapults were torsion powered (twistingof an object due to applied torque) consisting of a single vertical beam thrusta thick horizontal skein of twisted cords. Its skein meanwhile was subsequentlytwisted tight by geared winches, the beam was then pulled down to assume ahorizontal position. This acted to further twist the aforementioned skein,whilst also increasing its torsion in addition.
An artist’s impression of a Roman Onager:
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
军事科技
罗马军队至今仍然世界闻名,拥有28个高度致命且专业的强大军团,大约由14-16.8人万组成;被授命捍卫大罗马帝国500万平方公里的土地。同样,罗马在军事领域的创新不容小觑。
罗马人以使用各种不同类型的攻城器械而闻名。其中一种叫“Onagers”,类似于弹射器,由扭力驱动(由施加的扭矩引起的物体扭曲),包括一件单垂直梁,和一根很粗的水平绞线。首先,绞线被绞车绞紧,然后垂直梁被拉下来呈水平位置。这样就进一步扭曲了绞线,同时还增加了其扭力。

一张关于罗马Onager(攻城器械)的画作:



A stone was then placed on the end of the an Onager’s sling, andhurled either into a city’s walls, or straight into the enemy’s ranks when thebeam was freed of its restraint and rebounded violently back to its originalvertical position.
Onagers were not the only siege weapons to be utilized by theRomans however, Ballistas or large scale bolt throwers were also used to a hugeextent during the Imperial Era. The largest ballistas were quite accurate, andcould hurl both huge and heavy projectiles up to 460 metres away. It couldmeanwhile even accommodate weights of up to 30 kg. Weights of up to 78 kg werenot unheard of however.
Ballistas much like Onagers, were also torsion powered but hadtwo sets of parallel skeins instead through which 2 separate arms joined attheir ends by the cord that propelled the missile. Ballistas were also muchsmaller than Onagers usually, allowing them to be more readily operated.Repeating ballistas in addition also existed, but were used on a scale muchsmaller than any of their standard variants. On the rare occasions that theywere used however, they could fire up to several bolts without having the needto reload.
A reconstruction of a large scale Roman Ballista:

接着,在Onager弩炮的尾部吊索上安放一块石头,然后将石头猛投至敌军城墙上,当条件允许的时候,还可直接将石头投至敌军阵营中。投完石头之后,垂直梁会猛烈弹回至垂直位置。
Onagers弩炮并不是罗马人唯一使用的攻城器械,在罗马帝国时代,Ballistas弩炮或大型锚杆投掷器也被大量使用。最大的Ballistas弩炮相当准确,可以将又重又大的射弹投掷460米远。甚至可以容纳重达30公斤的重物。不过,重达78公斤的也并非闻所未闻。
Ballistas弩炮很像Onagers,也是扭力驱动的,但是配有两组平行绞线,而两根单独的臂在尾部连接到推动炮弹的绳索。Ballistas型弩炮通常比Onagers小得多,也更容易操作。另外还有可连续发射的ballistas型射炮,但使用的规模比标准型号要小得多。

大型罗马Ballista型弩炮重建:



A smaller projectile accelerator known as the Scorpionmeanwhile, were also utilized during the Imperial Era. Functioning verysimilarly to a Roman Ballista, Scorpions were usually placed at the top of ahill on the sides of an accompanying Roman legion. When shot from an elevatedposition, distances of up to 400 metres could easily reached by the resultingfired bolts from a Scorpion.
With a fire rate of 4 bolts/minute, more often than not theScorpion was also used for long range defence rather than offense as it wasusually quite difficult to move. It was also extremely expensive in addition,and was said to be essentially an overly large crossbow. 60 Scorpions perLegion was the norm during the Late Republic and Early Empire Era.
A reconstruction of a Imperial Roman Scorpion:

同时还有一种较小的炮弹加速器在罗马帝国时代也有使用,人称“蝎子”。与罗马弩炮功能十分类似,“蝎子”通常被安置在罗马军团两侧的山顶上。当从较高的位置射击时,“蝎子”所发射栓子可以轻松达到400米的距离。
一分钟能发射4只炮弹,“蝎子”常常用于长距离防守而不是进攻,因为通常很难移动。另外造价十分昂贵。据说其本质上是一座弩。不过每个军团都配有“蝎子”,这在罗马共和国末期和罗马帝国早期时期是常态。

罗马帝国“蝎子(一种射炮加速器)”重建:



And of course as mentioned earlier, the Romans had a verysophisticated system of military surgeries, and also actively utilized pontoonbridges to suppress their enemies.
Ships were tied together side by side to allow a temporarycrossing for the army, to journey across a particular dangerous section of ariver or lake. The speed at which such crossings were made, was also perfectedduring the Imperial Era allowing the Romans to often catch their enemies offguard. Rafts were however were usually used more than pontoon bridges though,since they were easier to construct and deconstruct.
Every Roman legion meanwhile at any given time was alwaysaccompanied with a battlefield surgery unit (an innovation first pioneered bythe Romans).
The Romans were also well acquainted with fort building inaddition, and due to the fact that every last single Roman Legionary wastrained in the arts of structural engineering, could build high quality fortsas required, in a supernaturally short amount of time.
Reconstruction of the gateway of Arbeia Fort:

当然了,就像前文所述,罗马拥有复杂的军用手术系统,并经常利用浮桥来压制敌人。
船舶并排在一起,以便让军队临时穿越河流或湖泊等危险区域。在罗马帝国期间,这种方式的渡河速度也十分令人满意,如此一来,罗马人经常可成功将他敌人赶走。然而,通常还是使用木筏而不是浮桥,因为木筏更容易构建和拆卸。
此外,罗马人还非常擅长建造堡。而且,由于每一个罗马军团的成员都接受过结构工程方面的训练,可根据需要,在极短的时间内建造高质量的堡垒。

Arbeia堡垒大门重建图:



What made the building of Roman forts (Castra) especiallynotable, was the fact that a Legion could build one from scratch even after along day’s march, using the raw materials from their surroundings. Severalspecialist engineering units were formed just in order to concentrate on theconstruction of said structures, called “Immunes”, since they were excused fromthe normal duties usually required from an ordinary legionary.
Commandeered by an overseeing unit called the Architecti(Engineers), the immunes could even under the very worst of circumstances, havean emergency fort constructed in a matter of hours. Camp plans from textbookswritten specifically to aid in the construction of forts, were given to theArchitecti to continuously reference whilst building, and manual labour wasmandatory amongst legionaries to assist in the establishment of forts.
As for the forts themselves, every legion had in its possessionone which served as its de facto headquarters where they were repeatedlyrendezvous back at after a certain period of time. Much more so than theirtemporary forts, these main Castrum were highly sophisticated with regards totheir features.
A plan for a typical Roman Fort in Bavaria, Germany:

那么是什么让罗马的堡垒(Castra)建筑特别引人注目呢?那是因为军团可以在漫长的一天行军之后,使用周遭的原材料,从头开始建造一座建筑。军团中会成立几个专业的工程小分队,专门集中精力建造一种叫做“Immunes”的建筑。
这些小分队,由一个叫“Architecti”(工程师)的监督单位指挥,即使是在最坏的情况下,也可以在几个小时内建成一座紧急堡垒。为了协助建造堡垒,罗马的教科书上专门写有建造营地的内容,而工程师也可以不断参考书本的内容来实施建设,并且军队中的体力劳动是强制性的,以协助建造堡垒。
每个军团都拥有一个堡垒作为总部,他们会每隔一段时间后在堡垒里会面一次。罗马军队的主堡--“Castrum”,从建筑特性来说,要比临时堡垒复杂得多。

德国巴伐利亚州,典型罗马堡垒的图纸:



Castrums in any case always had a castellum (wall) of some sort,usually made out of stone if possible but apart from that were also aided bytrenches (fossa) which were filled to the brim with stakes (sudes). Possessinga rectangular exterior, towers were placed at regular intervals all along thesewalls armed with scorpions and other siege weapons.
As for Legionaries themselves meanwhile during the EarlyImperial Era, were fortunate enough to have in their possession 4 key Romanmilitary innovations: the Pilum, the Scutum, LoricaSegmentata and of course,the Gladius.
Coming in to variants; thick and thin was the Roman Javelin.Both types of pilum were roughly 2 metres long, but the thick variant wasattached to the shaft with a 5 cm wide tang. The tip of both versions howeverwas pyramidal in shape, with a diameter of 7.5 mm, and was directly above awooden block to not only secure the metal head, but also to protect one’s handin melee combat.
Both types of pilums were carried by an average warringlegionary. The way they operated however, was that the javelins would be tossedat the enemy prior to an infantry charge. If the javelins did not meet theirtargets, and landed on a hostile shield instead, the pilum’s tip was designedto break off, acting to substantially contribute to the weight of an enemy’ssafeguard, forcing him to part with it, making him especially vulnerable toattack.
The ingenuity of this design also meant that pilums could not beretrieved and thrown back at the legionaries themselves. They are depictedbelow as follows:

“Castrums(古罗马兵营)”通常配有或多或少的围墙,如果可能的话,通常由石头建成,除此之外,还可使用木桩填入边缘的壕沟建成围墙。通常会有一堵长方形的外墙,每隔一段距离都会安放“蝎子(射弹加速器)”和攻城武器。
罗马帝国早期,军团就拥有了4项重要的军事技术创新,包括:罗马短矛、罗马盾牌、罗马环片甲,当然了还包括罗马短剑。

至于短矛的变种兵器,那就是罗马的重标枪和轻标枪了。这两种短矛的长度大约在2米左右,但是重标枪会被连接到5厘米宽的抢柄上,两种标枪的顶端形状均为金字塔形,直径为7.5毫米,在木柄上方不仅可以固定金属枪头,而且在近战中还可用来保护士兵的手。

普通的战斗军团都装备有这两种短矛。但是,他们操作的方式是在步兵冲锋之前将标枪投向敌人。如果标枪没有刺中目标,而是落在敌人的盾牌上,那么标枪就会自行损坏,因为这种标枪就的这种独创性设计,如此一来,可以增加敌军盾甲的重量,迫使敌军增加负担,也是敌军更容易受到攻击:



Scutums on the other hand, were the standard rectangular shapedshields of utilized by the Roman Army all over the Mediterranean. Equipped withround edges that curved around the corners, the Scutum was a human sized shieldallowing a Roman soldier to effectively knock out cold an enemy warrior in somepotential cases, or severely put him off balance at least.
The iconic Roman shield was on average roughly 1 metre high, 40cm across, and 0.6 cm thick. Light enough to be held in one hand also, itallowed the vast majority of the 1.6–1.8 m tall legionary. Scutums most notablyalso allowed the Legions to form a variety of different formations includingbut not limited to standard shield tactics such as the famous Testudo orTortoise formation:

另外,另一方面,罗马盾牌是罗马军队在整个地中海地区使用的标准矩形盾牌。拥有圆角的边缘和弯曲的折角,罗马盾牌被做成人类的大小,在特定的情况下,罗马士兵可利用这种盾牌有效击昏敌军,或者至少打破敌人的身体平衡。

典型的罗马盾大于1米高、40里面宽,大约是0.6厘米的厚度。重量足够轻,易于手持,适合军团大部分1.6~1.8m的军人使用。最值得注意的是,罗马盾也允许军团形成各种不同的编队,包括但不限于标准的盾牌战术,如著名的的龟甲形攻城方阵编队:



LoricaSegmentata on the other hand was considered to be Rome’s stateof the art classed body armour. Naturally as such, it was sometimes substitutedinstead for its chainmail counterpart; the LoricaHamata. In the still commoncases however where they did don a suit of the iconic 2nd Century Roman armour,it allowed its wearer to have several inherent advantages when it came tomatters of combat.
There were four sections to LoricaSegmentata, two for theshoulders and two for the torsos. Using a technique called “case hardening”,the Legionary’s standard armour simultaneously used soft iron on the insidewhilst also utilizing several strips of steel from without, attached togethervia the use of leather straps. The strips were arranged horizontally on thebody, overlapping downwards, and they surrounded the torso in two halves, beingfastened at the front and back.
A suit of LoricaSegmentata:

另外,罗马环片甲被认为是罗马的艺术级盔甲。自然的,有时候也会被锁子甲代替;不过,通常情况下,罗马军队都能穿上这种第二代罗马装甲。当开展战斗时,它能使穿戴者获得几项固有优势。
罗马环片甲由4个部分组成,其中2部分用于保护肩膀,另外两部分用于保护躯干。采用了一种人称“表面硬化”的技术,这种标准装甲在内部衬有软铁,在外部则采用了几根钢带,然后通过皮带将二者连接在一起。钢带水平放置于身上,向下重叠,将躯干分为两部分环抱起来,分别固定在前部和后部。

一套罗马环片甲:



The shoulders meanwhile were safeguarded by additional steelplates which allowed for additional protection. This was a major disadvantagehowever, as it often meant that the armour weighed at least over 9 kg whichwould certainly have drowned its wearer should he have been unfortunate enoughto have fallen into a lake. It also corroded very easily.
Last but not least meanwhile was the Roman Gladius; a shortsword essentially. Made from steel, and only 60–85 cm in length with a weightmerely of 0.7–1 kg, the Gladius was a core part of the Imperial Roman Army.
The design was such that it was used to stab rather than slice,and was efficient especially when it came to fighting in close quarteredformations with little room for free moving nor mistakes:

与此同时,肩部也由额外的钢板保护。然而这是一个主要的缺点,因为它通常意味着装甲的重量至少超过9公斤,如果不幸坠入湖中,佩戴者肯定会被淹死。
最后要介绍的是罗马短剑。由钢制成,只有60-85厘米长,重量仅为0.7-1千克,罗马短剑乃是帝国军队的核心装备。

设计成下图那样,主要是用来戳刺而不是切削,特别是在近距离阵营对战时,由于自由移动空间较小、且战斗容错率较小的情况下,这种短剑是十分高效的:



In great contrast to the Romans, the Han Chinese had fewerdevelopments in the realms of military technology.
The Han Empire did however make good use of Crossbows. Crossbowshad of course already been around since the 6th Century BC, having beeninvented by the Ancient Chinese during the Spring and Autumn Period (771–476BC), but during the Han Empire saw new heights attained.
Crossbows during the Han Era were improved to such an extentthat entire Imperial corps trained specifically in the aforementioned weaponwere more than capable of completely (if not that, then at least mostly)decimating a group of mounted warriors, who had been charging from afar. Rows uponrows of Chinese crossbowman were formed, all properly trained to fire off asingle volley before ducking to allow the supporting row behind them to fireoff a another round of projectiles directly at the enemy.
A Han Era Crossbow:

与罗马人截然不同的是,汉朝人在军事科技领域的进展甚微。
但是汉帝国却十分擅长用弩。当然了,大约公元前6世纪弩就已经出现,由春秋时期(公元前771-476年)的古代中国人发明。但在汉帝国时期,弩的使用达到了新的高度。
弩在汉朝时期被改进到一种新的高度,整个帝国的军队都针对弩进行了特别的训练,这些部队可完全歼灭(如果不是完全歼灭也能歼灭大部分)一队从远处冲锋而来的骑兵。一排排受过良好训练的中国弩兵,前排的弩兵先进行一次齐射,接着躲闪到后排,后排接着向敌阵发起另一次齐射。

一把汉代军用弩:



One of the most common forms of Crossbowmen tactics was to splita division into two, in the form of two wings, in order to allow for crossfireto occur. Not only was it severely devastating to the opposition, it also actedindirectly as psychological warfare.
Not only did the Chinese use two types of crossbows (light andheavy), but they also took to mounted archery as well in addition, having beeninfluenced by their wars with the Turkic Nomadic Xiongnu Empire (209 BC-439AD).
, Single-handed crossbows in addition alsoexisted during the time period, which allowed for mounted riders to be holdonto the reins of the horses whilst shooting also.
Crossbows ended up being mass produced to such an extent infact, that in the city of Luoyang alone, a reported 11,181 crossbows and 34,625arrows have been discovered in the former Han secondary Capital alone.Repeating crossbows meanwhile during the Han Era, had also just been introducedfor the first time ever towards the end of Imperial China’s second dynasty.
The Chinese invention of the repeating crossbow, introducedduring the Han Era:

最常见的弩兵阵型,那就是将一个师拆分成两个部分,布置在军团两翼,以方便迎战。这样不仅可对敌军派造成严重破坏,而且还可间接地作为心理战术
中国人不仅使用了2种弩(轻型弩与重型弩),由于受到与游牧民族--匈奴帝国(公元前209年~公元439年)的战争影响,他们还额外配备了骑射部队。
在汉代时期,还存在着单手弩,这使骑射兵在射击的同时还能抓住马缰。
最终,弩被大量生产使用到了一种新的高度,事实上,单单在西汉陪都--洛阳城就发现了11181具弩以及34625把弓箭。同时,在汉朝第二王朝的末期,还首次发明了连弩。

以下是中国人发明的连弩,出现于汉朝时期:


Invented by a Han strategist named Zhuge Liang (who alsoinvented the Kite as previously discussed), the Repeating Crossbow had a muchhigher rate of fire than its more normal variants, because the act of stringingthe bow, placing a bolt and shooting it could all be done with one hand whilst keepingthe weapon stationary.
To make it work, a “magazine” containing a number of bolts wasloaded into the crossbow, and as the projectiles were being fired, it triggereda mechanism from within which would cause a rectangular level to oscillatebackwards and forwards appropriately. Weighing merely 1.19 kg, 0.6 m in length,0.44 m in width and also extremely easy to produce and operate, it gave the HanChinese a massive edge on the battlefield.
Horse drawn, “Heavy Crossbows” (武刚车) were alsoknown to be used in sieges, with one particular variant requiring theequivalent of 159 kg to even load. Apart from that however, the Chinese oftenused Traction Trebuchets instead, which was also first thought to have beeninvented by the Ancient Chinese. Roman style torsion powered weapons were notknown to have existed in the Han Empire meanwhile.
The Han Dynasty being a Cavalry centric fighting force alsoduring the Early Imperial had invented (disputed and controversial) the Stirrup,a new discovery which allowed the Imperial Cavalry to be more efficient incombat:
Han Era stirrup:

连弩是由汉代军事家诸葛亮发明的(前文所提到的风筝也是他发明的),连弩的的发射频率比普通弩要高很多,因为弓弦的动作,安装箭支和射击都可以用一只手完成,同时还可保持武器静止不动。
为了使连弩更好运作,一个包含多个箭支的箭匣被装入弩中,当箭被发射时,会触发了一种机构,这种机构会使换箭装置适当地向前和向后摆动。连弩重约1.19公斤,大约0.6米长,0.44米宽,十分易于制造,也易于操作,这使汉朝人在战场中占尽优势。

用马拉的“武刚车”在攻城中叶有使用,一种武刚车的变体可以载重159公斤。除此之外,中国人还使用了牵引投石机,据传也是由古代中国人发明的。但是,罗马的扭力驱动投石机在汉朝并不存在。
西汉军队,是一支以骑兵为中心的战斗力量,他们还发明了(这个有点争议)马镫。这是一项新发明,使帝国骑兵在战斗中更加高效:

汉代马镫:



Attached to each side of a horse's saddle, in the form of a loopwith a flat base to support a rider's foot, it allowed the already fierce HanCavalry to fight yet even more effectively on horseback.
Although the advantages of the stirrup have been disputed, thisis a rather unfair view of what was a moderately important addition to thefields of military technology. Stirrups in fact made it harder for a rider tobe knocked off his feet, and allowed Chinese horse archers to stand up in orderto fire an arrow, or strike with a melee weapon from a greater height and withgreater force.
The Han Dynasty also built forts like the Romans, but they werenowhere near as advanced for sure (plus we know little of them anyway). Butthey did have gatehouses and watchtowers to protect these vast fortresseshowever, defended by thousands of soldiers, with walls which were tens ofmetres high up and armed to the teeth with siege defence weaponry.
A ceramic model of a fortress dating back to the Han Era:

马镫附着在马鞍的两侧,以带有平底的环状机构支撑骑手的脚,这让本身已经非常凶猛的汉朝骑兵在马背上的战斗更加高效。
虽然对于马镫的优势一直存在争议,但作为军事技术的适当补充,这种观点是不公平的。实际上马蹬会使骑手的脚不那么容易挣脱掉,这样骑射手就可以站起来发射弓箭了,或者还可以在更高的位置用更大的力量、以其他武器打击敌人。
汉朝人也像罗马人那样建立了堡垒,但是远未达到先进的程度(再说了,我们对之了解甚少)。但是,他们的确也有塔楼和瞭望塔来保护这些庞然大物。堡垒由成千上万的士兵保护着,同时还建有几十米高的围墙,而且还用攻城防御武器武装到牙齿。

一座陶制堡垒模型,可追溯至汉代:


The Han Chinese meanwhile were also known to have practicedChemical Warfare amongst many other developments in the fields of militarytechnology.
Around the year 178 AD for example in order to suppress apeasant rebellion, the Chinese had horse drawn chariots manoeuvre around theopposing enemy army carrying bellows (a device that furnishes blasts of air),which was then used to pump calcium oxide (CaO), or burnt lime at the saidhostile forces.
The Imperial Army was also purported to have used incendiaryrags to rout the enemy, by tying them to the tails of their stallions whichthen acted to terrify them into charging towards the enemy lines, subsequentlydisrupting their formations and in the process acting to make the rebelsvulnerable to an Imperial charge.
With regards to siege equipment on the other hand, the Chinesewere known to have used the Traction Trebuchet, and though they did not inventit themselves managed to develop it to unbelievable standards during the reignof the Han Empire.,
Caltrops, were also known to have been utilized by the HanChinese also in addition. Made from iron primarily, the caltraps or as theywere known as in Chinese, the anti-cavalry pikes (拒馬鎗) were an arrayof long ranged weapons (not necessarily spears), which were put up together ona wooden rack and were deployed en masse all over the paths leading to and fromgates, streets, paths and outside the walls of fortresses, in order to halt theadvance of the an enemy cavalry force. They are seen below as follows:

汉朝人据传还实行过化学战,其在军事科技领域还有许多其他进步。
比如,大约在公元178年的时候,为了镇压一场农民起义,汉朝军队乘坐马车、背着风箱(一种可以充气的设备)围绕了敌军,然后用风箱向敌军泵送氧化钙(CaO)-- 也称煅石灰。
据称,汉帝国军队还通过燃烧破布来击溃敌军;将破布绑在公马的尾巴上,然后让马儿冲锋到敌军阵线,这样就打乱了敌军的阵营,从而在冲锋中使叛军处于劣势地位。
另外,至于工程器械方面,据闻中国人还使用了牵引投石机,虽然汉朝本身没有发明牵引投石机,但是却将其发展到了一种难以置信的高度。
另外,铁蒺藜也为汉朝人所用。主要由铁制成,铁蒺藜、或者为中国人所熟知的“拒马枪”,都属于远距武器(不一定是矛),拒马枪被放在一起,置于木制的架子上,并且都被部署在通往大门、街道、小巷和城墙外的通道上,以阻止敌方军队前行。

拒马枪如下图所示:



The average Han Infantryman meanwhile, came equipped with fouritems which allowed him to emerge victorious on the battlefields: a Jian, a Ji,Fishscale or Lamellar armour (both were utilized at Han China’s heightsequally), and was also accompanied with by a Gourd Shaped Shield for defensivemeasures.
The Dao was the average infantryman’s sword. Singled handed andsingle edged, was 1.12 m long and made of steel rather than bronze as swordswere first made of in the earliest part of the Han Dynasty. The Dao was madethrough “folding and forging” techniques which acted to improve the quality andstrength of the steel, by minimizing impurities and spreading the carboncontent evenly throughout the aforementioned material.
Because of its length, the users of such weapons were forced toslice rather than stab, much unlike a Roman Gladius. Naturally, it was found tobe more effective when used by the Imperial Cavalry, rather than withinfantryman. It was also a vast improvement from the double-edged Jian whichcame before, and was said to have only taken a week to master, as opposed tothe Jian which took months.
A reproduction of a Han Era Dao:

同时,普通汉朝步兵通常装备了4件装备,这四件装备是战场的制胜法宝:一把剑、一把戟、一件鳞甲或胄甲(二者在汉朝都有使用)、另外还有一件葫芦型的盾牌用于防御。
“刀”,也就是普通步兵的剑。单手握持,只有一测带有刀刃,长度为1.12米,由钢制成,而汉朝最初所用的剑是由青铜制成的。刀是通过“折叠锻打”工艺制成。通过最大限度的去除杂质、并使整个剑胚中碳含量均匀分布,目的是为了提高钢的质量和强度。
由于其长度的原因,持刀者被迫挥刀切削而不是用来戳刺,这与罗马短剑大相庭径。自然的,骑兵用刀作战更加有效,而不是步兵。相对于之前的双刃剑,汉刀是一项巨大的进步,据说只需一周时间便可掌握,而剑需要一个月才能掌握。

一把复制的汉刀:



The Ji (Halberd), was a common infantry weapon meanwhile whichcombined a dagger axe with a spear (the cavalry used it as well). It was veryeffective. The Halberd was an especially long spear which came attached with ahook. You could thrust and stab whilst also using it to hook onto the enemy’sleg and pull back to dismember it completely or at least severely cripple it.
Because of the Ji’s length, you could safely kill dozens ofenemies at a very safe distance. It could of course also be used as a longrange double handed axe. Two variants of it are seen below as follows:

戟(Halberd)是一种普通的步兵武器,配有一把匕首斧和一把矛(骑兵叶有使用)。这种武器十分有效。戟是一种特殊的长矛,并附有一个钩子。你可以用它来戳刺;也可以用它勾住敌人的腿,然后将其拖回,从而砍断敌人的手脚,或者至少可使敌人严重伤残。

由于戟很长,在安全距离内,你便可轻松杀死几十个敌人。它当然也可以用作远程战斧。以下是戟的两种不同变体:



Lamellar Armour meanwhile, was made out of hundreds of smalloverlapping metal and or leather plates laced together, to make a flexible andlight coat of armour. Coat of plates consisted of hundreds of smallnon-overlapping metal or leather plates stitched or riveted together. Thoughoffering much less protection than the legionnaire’s LoricaSegmentata, the Haninfantryman’s armour was much lighter allowing the soldier to move faster andtire out at a slower rate.
Lamellar armour dating back to the Han Wudi Era (141–87 BC)during China’s campaigns against the Xiongnu Empire (Source:HanDynasty Armor):

还有就是薄片胄甲,是由数百个重叠在一起的金属或皮革板制成的盔甲,灵活而轻便。此种胄甲由数百个不重叠的金属或皮革板拼接或铆接在一起制成。虽然相对于罗马的LoricaSegmentata盔甲,其提供的防护要少得多,但这种汉朝步兵盔甲更轻便,这使得士兵能够以更快的速度移动,并且没那么容易疲惫。

可追溯至汉武帝时代--汉匈之战期间(公元前141~87年)的薄片胄甲(资料来源:《汉代盔甲》):



Apart from Lamellar armour, Fish scale cuirasses were alsoutilized by the Han Chinese. Much like its Lamellar variants, Fish scale armourwere also made up of many individual plates which were tied to one another,held by the backing of a cloth or leather in overlapping rows. This particularone below dated back to the Early Han Era:

除了薄片胄甲以外,鳞甲也为汉朝人所用。与胄甲类似,鳞甲也由许多单独的板片彼此相连制作而成,由一排排重叠的布料或皮革的作为里衬。以下这件鳞甲可追溯至西汉时期:



And lastly was the Han Infantry’s Gourd Shaped Shield. Though itpales in comparison to the Roman Scutum, as is self-evident the shield wasextremely small and offers minimal protection to its user. On the other hand,the small shield offered more maneuverability than the scutum whilst offeringsome form of protection against arrows. In addition, it was also much lighterthan the scutum, thus you could use it to offset an enemy’s balance via a swiftblow to the head.
A Gourd Shaped Shield as seen below, dated back to the Han Era:

最后就是汉朝步兵的葫芦形盾牌了。虽然与罗马盾相比,它显得苍白无力,这是很显然的,因为这种盾牌非常小,只能对使用者提供最低限度的保护。但另一方面,小型盾牌提供了比盾牌更多的可操作性,同时一定程度上还能抵御弓箭射击。另外,它比罗马盾轻便得多,所以你可以用它猛击敌人的头部,从而使敌人失去平衡。

以下所示为一块葫芦形盾牌,可追溯至汉朝时期:



Verdict: The Roman Empire would for sure have been much more advancedthan their Han Chinese counterparts with regards to military technology. But itshould be noted that military technologies were only made to fit with thecircumstances of the time.
For example, whilst LoricaSegmentata was superior to theLamellar armour of the Han, it would not have been wise for the Chinese toadopt a similar set of cuirasses, since they were up against the Horse Nomadsof the North, who went to war on horseback and used bow and arrow to gain acomparative advantage over the Han Chinese. As such a 9kg suit of armour wouldbe a liability to the Han, rather than an asset. Nonetheless, for the purposesof the comparison, the Romans win the last point. Rome and Han: 7 all.

结论

在军事技术方面,罗马帝国肯定比汉朝同行先进得多,但应当指出的是,军事技术只是为了适应当时的战场环境。
比如,罗马人的LoricaSegmentata盔甲要优于汉朝人的薄片胄甲,中国人采用类似护胸甲的装备是不太明智的,因为他们要对付北方的骑马游牧民族,游牧民族是骑马作战的,他们使用用弓和箭,相对来说处于优势地位。因此,像这样的一套9公斤装甲,对汉朝士兵来说是一种负担,而不是资产。为了一分高下的目的,此轮罗马得一分。罗马VS汉朝,比分为7:7.

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Conclusion
As should be quite obvious by now, the Han and Romans wereadvanced on a similar scale to one another. At last, such a contention whichhas long been asserted all over the Internet has now (hopefully) been proven atlast.
It would seem that the Romans were more advanced than theirChinese counterparts in the fields of Metallurgy, Medicine, Military Technologyand also slightly when it came to Civil and Structural Engineering.
The Chinese in contrast were more advanced than their Romancounterparts when it came to the fields of Agriculture, Astronomy, Aeronauticsand Mathematics.
The two peer empires meanwhile were equals in the fields of Hydraulics and Mechanics, and Materials Engineering.
The author is forced to conclude as such, that the two great fathers of Western and Chinese civilization, Rome and Han respectively were approximately equal with regards to technological advancement.

总结
现在结果已经很明显了,汉朝与罗马的先进程度大致相当,最后,在互联网上长期存在的这种争论现在(希望吧)终于得到证实。
我们可以看出,罗马人似乎在冶金、医药、军事技术上比汉朝先进,同时在土木和结构工程上比汉朝领先一丢丢。
而汉朝人在农业、天文学、航空学以及数学领域比罗马人先进。
在水力学和材料工程领域,两个同时代帝国的水平是相当的。

作者被迫为西方文明和中国文明的两位祖师爷做了一个总结,结果是罗马和汉朝在科技进步方面大致相当。


DaniilKozhemiachenko (Даниил Кожемяченко), studied history and read sources forfun
Updated Oct 6,2015 · Upvotedby Joe Lonsdale, GP at 8VC; Co-Founder of Palantir,Addepar, Opengov, Affinity and Formation 8.
Thanks for the A2A.
First thing to mention is that technological progress of ancient China is oftenassociated with so called FourGreat Inventions, first of which was made in Han period (i.e. no later than 3rd centuryAD). If we try to compare level of technology in Rome (in 2nd — 3rd centuriesAD), which was, in fact Greek technology, as most of the inventors, engineersand scientists were Greeks, and that of China we will find, that paper andporcelain were almost sole things Chinese could produce and Romans could not(they used parchment and papyrus instead).

谢邀
首先要提到的是,中国古代的科技进步往往与所谓的四大发明有关,而四大发明的第一项就是产生于汉朝(公元3世纪之前),如果我们试图将之与罗马(公元2~3世纪)的科技相比,实际上那是希腊的技术,因为大多数发明家、工程师或者科学家都是希腊人。我们会发现,几乎只有纸张和瓷器是罗马人不能生产而中国人能生产的东西(罗马人用羊皮纸和纸莎草纸代替)。

There were also many things that both of the nations could produce, build or do(e.g., roads, city plumbing, steel of various quality, artillery*, crossbows**and so on) which had pretty much the same properties.

有很多东西是两个国家都能生产的、建造的(比如,道路、城市管道、各种质量的钢、大炮(应该是弩炮吧?)、弩等等),他们几乎具有相同的属性。

However, there were things which Chinese (in contrast to Romans) couldn'tproduce: treadmill crane, armor of substantial quality (in fact, almost theonly thing they forged well were swords, while their helmets or body armor wererather primitive), cement, plastic surgery (we have a treatise from Galenthereon) and surgical instruments.
Nevertheless, although Romans could possess a bit more technologies thanChinese the products of both civilizations were on almost the same level: bothwere able to build big palaces, big walls or fortresses, supply their citiesand fields with water, cure the ill, produce massive amounts of weaponry ofsubstantial (at least superior to their enemies') quality and so on..

然而,存在着中国人无法生产而罗马人可以生产的东西:起重机、结实的装甲(实际上,他们能锻造的唯一东西只有是剑,而他们的头盔或铠甲相当原始)、水泥、整形手术(盖伦有一篇论文)以及手术器械。
虽然罗马人拥有比中国人更多的技术,但这两个文明的产品几乎处于同一水平:两者都能建造大型宫殿、大型城墙或堡垒、为城市和农田提供供水、治疗疾病、生产大量优质的武器装备(至少比他们的敌人要优越)等等。

Jay Liu, I've been told I'm Chinese...
Answered Oct 3,2015
Thanks for the A2A
The Romans and Han Chinese were advanced in different fields, it's hard to saywho was "more" advanced.
Romans were relatively advanced in:
·    Civic and military engineering
·    Military organization
·    Metal forging techniques, the Romans forged very high quality steel

谢邀
罗马与汉朝的科技都很先进,但是所专注的领域不同,很难说谁更先进一些。
罗马的先进之处在于:
·   土木和军事工程
·   军事组织
·   金属锻造技术,罗马人可以锻造从非常高质量的钢

Han China was relatively advanced in:
·    Agricultural technology, especially in irrigation engineering. Growing rice is more an exercise in engineering than agriculture.
·    Civil organization: Han China had a modern, centralized, meritocraticbureaucracy, dwarfing the Roman Imperial administration in both size andcomplexity
·    Metal casting techniques: Chinese could cast iron to a far higher quality thanthe Romans could, this allowed the Han to equip far larger armies.

汉朝的先进之处在于:
·    农业技术,特别是灌溉工程。种植水稻更像是一项工程行为而不是农业行为
·    民间组织:汉人拥有一个现代的、集权的、精英式的官僚机构,在规模和复杂性上使罗马帝国相形见绌。
·    金属铸造技术:中国人的铸铁质量要比罗马人高得多,这使汉朝装备了更大规模的军队。

I'm not going to try and make comparisons between the ClassicalGraeco-Roman philosophical traditions vs. Confucianism.  There's no way toobjectively state which is "better".  Both survive in some formin the modern world.

我不会试图将经典古希腊--罗马哲学传统与儒家思想相比较。因为根本无法客观说明哪一方更好。这二者都在现代社会中以某种形式存在着。

Karen Carr, Assoc. Professor Emerita,History, Portland State University. http://quatr.us
Answered Oct 31, 2016
This is really the wrong question, because the world center oftechnology in the first centuries CE was neither China nor Rome, but CentralAsia and India. To answer your question, though, I think they’re pretty even.

这其实是一个错误的问题,因为在世纪之初,世界技术中心不是中国也不是罗马,而是中亚和印度。但要如果一定要回答你的问题,我认为他们的水平是相当的。

Things Rome had that China didn’t:
Glass, and especially blown glass. Wool and linen. The lateensail, a triangular sail that made it easier to tack sailboats into the wind.Better oil lamps. Mold-made pottery. The idea that the earth might go aroundthe sun, and a good idea of how big around the earth was. Concrete, and the useof concrete for barrel vaults and domes. Better trigonometry than China. Bettersurgical techniques including removing dead fetuses so the mother didn’t die,and eye operations for trachoma. Slightly more experience with human and animaldissection, and therefore a somewhat better understanding of how human bodiesworked. Opium for anesthesia. The camera obscura.

罗马有而中国没有的东西:
玻璃,特别是吹制玻璃、羊毛和亚麻布、三角帆(一种三角形的帆,使帆船更容易迎风)、更好的油灯、用模具制造的陶器、地球可能绕太阳旋转的想法,地球有多大的想法、混泥土,以及用混泥土建造拱顶和圆顶、三角函数比中国厉害、更好的手术技术,包括去除死胎,保住母亲的性命和眼科手术治疗沙眼、人类和动物解剖的经验略多,因此更了解人体如何运作、用鸦片来麻醉、相机暗箱。

Things China had that Rome didn’t:
Gunpowder, paper, silk and hemp cloth, a cure for malaria,magnetic compasses, the crossbow, the double piston box bellows (helpful formaking hot fires to make steel), the water-powered box bellows, windmills, amore efficient system of writing numbers enabling them to solve simultaneousequations.

中国有而罗马没有的东西:
火药、纸张、丝绸和麻布、治疗疟疾、罗盘、弩、双活塞风箱(有助于产生热火用以制造钢铁),水力驱动风箱、风车、更有效的数字书写系统,能解决联立方程式。

Things Central Asia had that Rome and China didn’t:
High quality crucible steel, cotton, sugar, the recurve bow,better horses, the numbers we call “Arabic numerals”, mathematical theories oninfinity and probability, the idea of zero, tables of trigonometry sines,plastic surgery for facial reconstruction, cataract surgery, charcoal filtersfor clean water, the use of citrons to cure scurvy (Vitamin C deficiency).

中亚有而中国罗马没有的东西:
高质量坩埚钢、棉织物、糖、反曲弓、更好的马匹、阿拉伯数字、无穷大和概率的数学理论,零的概念,三角正弦表、面部重建整形手术、白内障手术、木炭净水器、用香橼治愈坏血病(缺乏维C)

But really 1) all of these inventions were important and had tobe combined, in the end, to move technology forward and 2) most of them wereexchanged pretty soon, and people did combine them. By end of the the MiddleAges, Europe had gunpowder, paper, silk, sugar, crossbows, cotton, and steel,Central Asia had opium, and China had cotton, sugar, steel, and lateen sails.China’s lack of experience with glass ended up being a serious handicap indeveloping chemistry and physics experimental equipment, and telescopes,though.

但说真的
1) 所有这些发明都非常重要,最终必须结合起来,从而推动科技的发展。
2) 很多技术很快就会进行互换,最终人们也会将他们结合起来,到中世纪末,欧洲有了火药、纸张、丝绸、糖、弩、棉织物、钢;中亚则有了鸦片;而中国有了棉织物、糖、钢、三角帆。尽管如此,中国对玻璃的制造缺乏经验,最终成为开发化学和物理实验设备和望远镜的严重障碍。

Al Jones
Answered Oct 8,2015
If you add up all of the technologies and scientific knowledgeboth developed/acquired and more importantly, broadly deployed, it's easy tomake a case for the Han and China in general being hundreds of years moreadvanced than the Roman Empire.   See Joseph Needham's books on Chinesetech or the comparisons between Chinese, Islamic Middle East, and WesternEuropean advancements in Stanford economic and technologyn historian NathanRosenberg's book "How the West Got Rich".   
The Romans were more advanced than commonly given credit for since laterauthors focused on war and politics rather than business, manufacturing,applied sciences, nutrition, surgical care, public health/water treatment,transportation networks, trade networks, and surrounding civilizations' techtransfers (Egypt, Carthage, Greece, Persia, Spain, Gaul, the Baltic, NorthAfrica, India, etc.) that China drew on sophisticated neighbors as well(Thailand, Cambodia, Korea, India, Mongolia, and the many nations nowconsolidated into modern China.)   
Roman history's always just been far more accessible to Western scholars whoused to be educated enough to read Classical Latin well into the 20th Centuryand the easiest books to find in most libraries dominate theories and consensusknowledge for centuries.


如果你把所有自行开发或者外部获得的技术、科学知识加起来,而且从(科学技术)使用的广泛程度的角度来看,那么你将很容易看出,汉朝比罗马要先进数百年。参见Joseph Needham关于中国科技的书籍,或参见斯坦福大学经济和技术史学家Nathan Rosenberg的书籍--《西方是如何变得富有的》,这本书将了中国、中东伊斯兰、西欧的科技进行了对比。
后面的答主对罗马有点过誉,因为后面的答主更关注战争和政治,而不是商业、制造业、应用科学、营养学、手术护理、公共卫生/水处理、交通网络、贸易网络、周边文明的技术转让(比如埃及、迦太基、希腊、波斯、西班牙、高卢、波罗的海、北非、印度等),中国也吸引了许多不同的邻国(比如泰国、柬埔寨、朝鲜、印度、蒙古,以及其他许多已经并入现代中国的国家)
罗马历史对于西方学者来说,往往更容易获得,因为西方学者受到了足够的教育,从而使他们在20世纪也能阅读古典拉丁文,而且大多数图书馆里最容易找到的书籍,已经主宰理论和共识数百年了。

Kurt Scholz, historian of science and technology
Updated Aug 28,2015
That is comparing apples and oranges. Each had its owntechnocomplex. There is no metric of being more advanced. However, advancementshappened in different fields due to different political systems.
Han China had a major interest in improved farming and built technology in thisfield that outlasted their rule. The same can be said of Roman concrete tobuild up their magnificient cities with fresh water supply and centers ofculture and entertainment.

这就跟那苹果虎橘子比较一样。各有各的技术复杂性。没有谁比谁更高级的标准。但是,由于政治制度的不同,他们各自在不同领域有不同进步。
汉代中国对改善农业和建立这一领域的技术非常感兴趣,从而使得(汉朝的)统治时间很长。对于罗马来说也是一样,他们采用混泥土来建造宏伟的城市,并辅以淡水供应和文化娱乐中心。

Robert Johnston, I know technical.history.
Answered Oct 4,2015
I'm reading "The three kingdoms" which deals with theevents that lead to the downfall of the Han dynasty. It seems to me that theEmpire in China was much more loosely organised than the Roman which althoughnot immune to internal tension would have not fractured in the same way.
As far as technology is concerned perhaps China had a slight edge. Certainly,the West wanted the goods, hence the silk road. Inventions also tended to flowEast  to. West rather than the other way around.

我正在读《三国》,这段时期所发生的事导致了汉朝的垮台。在我看来,在中国,其帝国的组织性比罗马要松散得多,尽管罗马不能免疫内部紧张的影响,但不会以与中国一样的方式分裂。
就技术而言,中国可能略有优势。这是必然的,西方想要通过丝绸之路进口货物,技术发明也倾向于由东向西传播而不是由其他的方式传播。

Margot Darby, Former journalist for InfoWorld.
Answered Aug 30,2015
Roman Empire, definitely, because of itsmany legacies which have stood the test of time. Both Ancient Rome and AncientCathay had highly developed statecraft, and they were arguably equivalent inmatters of technics. But we are writing this in Roman characters usedthroughout the world, on technology developed by Western European peoples witha culture derived in large part from the Christian civilization of the HighMiddle Ages and Ancient Rome. Old Cathay has nothing to compare.

当然是罗马帝国了,因为它的许多遗产经受了时间的考验。古罗马和古中国都有高度发达的治国方略,所以说他们在技术上来说是大致相等的。但是我们正在采用在世界广泛流传的罗马字符写答案,而且是利用西欧人发明的科技来写答案,而西欧文明大部分衍生自中世纪中期基督教文明和古罗马。古代中国没有什么可比性。

Gwydion Madawc Williams, Read a lot about history, and notesome general patterns.
Answered May 5,2014
The Roman Empire and Han Dynasty Empire in China were aboutequal.  China had silk, but the abacus is thought to have evolved from theRoman counting board.

罗马帝国与中国汉朝大致相当吧。中国有丝绸,但算盘算是从罗马计数板发展而来。

Weijia Deng, a guy who knows Chinese and a littleJapanese
Answered Jan 8
There are two kinds of technologies, those summarized fromexperiences, and those deducted from theories. For the first kind, it is hardto tell, while for the second kind, Roman Empire is far more better. Mostphenomena cannot be explained reasonably via theories back then, but it is theRoman way of describing world leads to modern science.

有两种技术,一种从经验中得来,另一种则是从理论中得来。对于第一种,很难说;然而对于第二种,罗马帝国就要好得多了。因为当时大多数现象都无法通过理论进行合理解释,但是,是通过采用罗马的方法,才导致了现代科技(的进步)。
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发表于 2018-3-18 09:04 | 显示全部楼层
古罗马帝国时代有史官纪录历史并保存至今吗?
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发表于 2018-3-19 21:27 超大游击队员 | 显示全部楼层
罗马的建筑,混泥土技术可以
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发表于 2018-3-19 21:31 超大游击队员 | 显示全部楼层
奴隶制社会的生产力是比不上封建社会的
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发表于 2018-3-20 07:48 | 显示全部楼层
一直有个疑问,古罗马那亮晶晶的盔甲是否符合历史事实?
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发表于 2018-3-20 08:40 | 显示全部楼层
玄幻版历史大吐槽,原来汉朝就发明了马镫和火药,罗马组织性比汉朝还要严密
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发表于 2018-3-20 09:49 | 显示全部楼层
罗马短剑的材质应该是熟铁或者青铜,远不如中国的锻造缳首刀剑
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发表于 2018-3-20 10:28 | 显示全部楼层
治理技术算不算技术?罗马有元老院,背后代表的民意是贵族和自由民(奴隶被排除在外),从那时就开始了和执政官(凯撒称过帝)的制衡较量,最后发展为议会和总统(或总理)的制衡体制。

汉朝就不说了,封建专制皇帝独裁。
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发表于 2018-3-20 11:06 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

临海观潮 发表于 2018-3-20 10:28
治理技术算不算技术?罗马有元老院,背后代表的民意是贵族和自由民(奴隶被排除在外),从那时就开始了和执 ...

汉朝要是采用罗马的制度,那以首都为中心画个圈,能有多少公民去投票呢?

其实这个问题在罗马就出现过,在当时并没什么好办法.

罗马和汉朝在许多时期面临过相似的问题,比如在罗马帝国初期和中国的唐朝中后期,都出现过军人专权的问题,在唐朝那叫牙兵和节度使问题,在罗马则是士兵们一生气就会把皇帝杀了再推举一个.
罗马和汉朝也都搞过八股文章,在罗马那时东罗马时期或者说拜占庭时期.
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发表于 2018-3-20 11:12 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

临海观潮 发表于 2018-3-20 10:28
治理技术算不算技术?罗马有元老院,背后代表的民意是贵族和自由民(奴隶被排除在外),从那时就开始了和执 ...

元老院可以代表自由民?那还要设立保民官做什么?弄得那么血淋淋的?凯撒什么时候称过帝?罗马共和国最后发展为君主独裁的专制帝国了吧?
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发表于 2018-3-20 11:19 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

白少流 发表于 2018-3-20 11:12
元老院可以代表自由民?那还要设立保民官做什么?弄得那么血淋淋的?凯撒什么时候称过帝?罗马共和国最后 ...

凯撒是终身独裁官
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发表于 2018-3-20 11:38 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

幽燕狐 发表于 2018-3-20 11:19
凯撒是终身独裁官

终身独裁官和称帝还是有区别的吧?要说终身独裁官,苏拉才是第一人,凯撒做的比他差远了
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发表于 2018-3-20 20:46 超大游击队员 | 显示全部楼层
临海观潮 发表于 2018-3-20 10:28
治理技术算不算技术?罗马有元老院,背后代表的民意是贵族和自由民(奴隶被排除在外),从那时就开始了和执 ...

汉在初期三公论道基本类似内阁制度,只不过皇帝指定内阁成员,真正皇权确立还需要汉武帝。另外举孝廉也基本类似民选,选出来的都是豪强。
另外,汉代军队很强的,无论动员能力,还是后勤保障能力,真的是可以脱离后方基地千里挥军的,罗马不仰仗海运就呵呵了。大规模骑兵作战的开始。说到筑城,汉军在河套筑城也很快而且坚固。
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发表于 2018-3-20 22:01 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

lynxliu2008 发表于 2018-3-20 20:46
汉在初期三公论道基本类似内阁制度,只不过皇帝指定内阁成员,真正皇权确立还需要汉武帝。另外举孝廉也基 ...


汉朝没有什么内阁制度,

其实两者界限很明显,罗马元老院是民间(贵族和自由民)里选的,选出来就算。

而中国古代无论三公还是孝廉,都得是皇帝指定当什么官,选出孝廉来仕途如何还是得看皇帝的意思,给县官做助手,还是做州牧,还是看皇帝意思。

还有个区别,汉朝那些都是行政体系的,而罗马元老院从咨询机构变成了立法机构,当然中间跟几个称皇帝的有制衡斗争过,但最终在欧洲形成了立法机构这么个深入人心的东西。而中国古代,哪来的立法机构,皇帝让人商量出来就颁布法律,平时皇帝的话就是法律,根本不存在立法机构,一切都是皇帝说了算,无论宦官还是外戚还是军阀得了势,都是胁迫皇帝以圣旨名义办事,也不存在立法机构。
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发表于 2018-3-20 23:52 超大游击队员 | 显示全部楼层
先把造假部分除去再比比看
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发表于 2018-3-21 12:38 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

临海观潮 发表于 2018-3-20 10:28
治理技术算不算技术?罗马有元老院,背后代表的民意是贵族和自由民(奴隶被排除在外),从那时就开始了和执 ...

还有人吹罗马的政治体制啊?真是活久见。。丫就典型的城邦制国家也就比部落时代高级那么一点点。跟汉朝的中央集权制+郡县制比,简直天上地下
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发表于 2018-3-21 13:10 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

gxgfyy 发表于 2018-3-21 12:38
还有人吹罗马的政治体制啊?真是活久见。。丫就典型的城邦制国家也就比部落时代高级那么一点点。跟汉朝的 ...

你要是比专制独裁的效率,那人家肯定没法比皇权专制的汉朝比。

但为什么今天我们也提出建设民主社会,而不说建设高效率的皇权专制独裁社会?这年头就连朝鲜都不敢明着说民主是错的
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发表于 2018-3-21 14:07 | 显示全部楼层
早期的自上而下的中央集权和早期自下而上的民主自治。
不过罗马到后期也逐步独裁化了,以当时的技术条件而言,自下而上的自治是无法维持一个疆域辽阔的大国的。
另外,汉代以后中国一直是合久必分、分久必合的状态,统一或者大致统一的时间占多数;而欧洲一直分裂割据至今。
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发表于 2018-3-22 12:26 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

临海观潮 发表于 2018-3-21 13:10
你要是比专制独裁的效率,那人家肯定没法比皇权专制的汉朝比。

但为什么今天我们也提出建设民主社会, ...

果然是夹带私货的。你也不看看古罗马才几个人拥有推举权。即便是罗马人,也有大量的平民也不是所谓的公民。论社会制度而言,罗马直到灭亡,其有效统治的区域都只限于罗马人生活的地方。要说选举就是先进,部落的酋长们说,俺们也都是选举上来的
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发表于 2018-3-22 14:12 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

幽燕狐 发表于 2018-3-20 11:19
凯撒是终身独裁官

那身闪亮的盔甲呢?我怎么觉得不靠谱呢
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发表于 2018-3-23 09:37 | 显示全部楼层
关于军力,有个很好的参照物---匈奴,汉武帝时期彻底击败了匈奴,东匈奴被融合同化,西匈奴被打的被迫西迁,结果在西方史上造就了著名的“上帝之鞭”。
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发表于 2018-3-23 10:18 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

gxgfyy 发表于 2018-3-22 12:26
果然是夹带私货的。你也不看看古罗马才几个人拥有推举权。即便是罗马人,也有大量的平民也不是所谓的公民 ...


心虚的就看什么都觉得别人夹带私货,对不起,民主二字是社会主义核心价值观里面的,而且是24个字里面的第二个词,还有我前面说了是贵族和自由民,你装什么看不见的
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发表于 2018-3-23 10:43 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

临海观潮 发表于 2018-3-23 10:18
心虚的就看什么都觉得别人夹带私货,对不起,民主二字是社会主义核心价值观里面的,而且是24个字里面的 ...

反正在你看来,跟民主选举沾边的就是先进的,那还有啥好说的,你高兴就好了呗!没必要再聊下去了
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发表于 2018-3-23 14:09 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

gxgfyy 发表于 2018-3-23 10:43
反正在你看来,跟民主选举沾边的就是先进的,那还有啥好说的,你高兴就好了呗!没必要再聊下去了

你真搞笑,《中华人民共和国选举法》是我们国家的法律,民主选举是我们国家的法律,你居然诋毁民主选举,你是何居心?

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发表于 2018-3-23 14:41 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

脉脉不语 发表于 2018-3-23 09:37
关于军力,有个很好的参照物---匈奴,汉武帝时期彻底击败了匈奴,东匈奴被融合同化,西匈奴被打的被迫西迁 ...

汉武帝时期彻底击败了匈奴,不过匈奴臣服是在汉昭帝时期了,南北匈奴分裂更是东汉的事

至于匈奴和匈人是否一回事现在还存在争议,罗马帝国那时已经处于衰落期了
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发表于 2018-3-25 12:32 | 显示全部楼层
历史可不是靠传说,
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发表于 2018-3-25 13:21 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

以公元前的冶金工艺能造出这种亮晶晶的盔甲?即便锁子甲也不是那时候的冶金技术能造的吧?欧洲人是怎么认为古罗马有这种盔甲的?

472309f790529822f729a30addca7bcb0b46d4e5.jpg

u=1766504684,3462960345&fm=214&gp=0.jpg

u=1685524353,17423639&fm=214&gp=0.jpg
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发表于 2018-3-25 13:48 超大游击队员 | 显示全部楼层
苏联喊的口号是民主,美国喊的口号是自由。好像是这样子的
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发表于 2018-3-26 01:41 | 显示全部楼层
额。。。LZ几位还没搞清楚罗马,就不要闹了。。。
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发表于 2018-3-26 19:55 | 显示全部楼层
居然没有提到罗马法
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发表于 2018-3-26 20:24 超大游击队员 | 显示全部楼层
脉脉不语 发表于 2018-3-23 09:37
关于军力,有个很好的参照物---匈奴,汉武帝时期彻底击败了匈奴,东匈奴被融合同化,西匈奴被打的被迫西迁 ...

且不说匈人和匈奴有没有关系。匈人最后还不是被罗马彻底灭了。倒是匈奴人,趁八王之乱灭了西晋
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发表于 2018-3-27 08:38 | 显示全部楼层

RE: 罗马与汉朝,谁的技术更加先进?

普加乔夫的眼镜 发表于 2018-3-26 20:24
且不说匈人和匈奴有没有关系。匈人最后还不是被罗马彻底灭了。倒是匈奴人,趁八王之乱灭了西晋

匈人被罗马彻底灭了?哪位有为青年发明的历史?敢问罗马灭匈人发生在那一年?将领是哪一位?烦请科普
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发表于 2018-3-27 08:49 超大游击队员 | 显示全部楼层
白少流 发表于 2018-3-27 08:38
匈人被罗马彻底灭了?哪位有为青年发明的历史?敢问罗马灭匈人发生在那一年?将领是哪一位?烦请科普

匈人帝国由盛而转向迅速灭亡的沙隆战役是和西罗马打的。阿提拉的儿子是东罗马杀的
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