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[视图资料] Astronomy Picture of the Day 2011 每日天文一图第五季(第五季至此结束)

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 楼主| 发表于 2011-05-23 16:16 | 显示全部楼层
2011 May 23

An Unexpected Flare from the Crab Nebula
Credit: NASA,DOE,FermiLAT, R. Buehler  (SLAC,KIPAC)
Explanation: Why does the Crab Nebula flare?No one is sure.The unusual behavior,discoveredover the past few years, seems only tooccur invery high energy light --gamma rays.As recently as one month ago, gamma-ray observations of theCrab Nebula by theFermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope showed anunexpected increase in gamma-ray brightness, becoming about five times the nebula's usual gamma-ray brightness, andfading again in only a few days.Now usually the faster the variability, the smaller the region involved.This might indicate that the powerful pulsar at thecenter of the Crab,a compact neutron star rotating 30 times a second, is somehow involved.Specifically,speculation is centered on the changingmagnetic fieldthat surely surrounds the powerfulpulsar.  Rapid changes in this field might lead to waves of rapidly accelerated electrons which emitthe flares,possibly inways similar to ourSun.The above image shows how the Crab Nebula normallyappears in gamma rays, as compared to theGeminga pulsar, and how it then appeared during the recent brightening.

说明: 蟹状星云怎么突然暴亮?目前未明,几年前发现他在高能的伽玛射线波段显着。不过,最近一个月,费米太空望远镜使用伽玛射线观测蟹状星云时,发现异常亮点,比原先亮度增加五倍之多,并且在数日后暗淡下来。通常,愈快速变化的位置代表着愈小范围的区域。这可能是代表着在蟹状星云中心处的中子星正以每秒30次的速率转动。具体来说,在中央磁场改变的位置上,想必是围绕着高能波霎。这个磁场的快速变化,加速垫子移动而发出闪焰,就像 太阳闪焰一样。这张影像清楚地说明蟹状星云的Geminga波霎在伽玛射线的平常模样以及最近突然增亮的模样。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-05-24 14:34 | 显示全部楼层
2011 May 24

Three Arches Above Utah
Credit & Copyright: Brad Goldpaint  (Goldpaint Photography)
Explanation: How many arches can you count in the above image?If you count both spans of the Double Arch in the Arches National Park in Utah, USA, then two. But since the above image was taken during a clear dark night, it caught a photogenic third arch far in the distance -- that of the overreaching Milky Way Galaxy.Because we are situated in the midst of the spiral Milky Way Galaxy, the band of the central disk appears all around us.The sandstone arches of the Double Arch were formed from the erosion of falling water.The larger arch rises over 30 meters above the surrounding salt bed and spans close to 50 meters across.  The dark silhouettes across the image bottom are sandstone monoliths left over from silt-filled crevices in an evaporated 300 million year old salty sea.  A dim flow created by light pollution from Moab, Utah can also be seen in the distance.

说明: 影像中,一共有几座拱门呢?这里是美国 犹他州 拱门国家公园,如果有算到这双拱门的话,那么一共是两座。但是这影像拍摄于晴朗夜空,在遥远背景中还有另外一座宏伟的拱门—银河。由于我们位处银河系中央,所以这些绕着银盘的螺旋带看起来就像是绕着我们的拱门。双拱门的沙石拱是受到流水侵蚀而成。最高耸的拱门是位在附近沙床处,高达30公尺,宽约50公尺。然而,在影像底端的石柱剪影,则是受到三亿年前的古盐海侵蚀岩石裂隙而残留下来。背景的微弱光源是犹他州莫阿布的城市光害。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-05-25 13:31 | 显示全部楼层
2011 May 25

Space Shuttle Rising
Credit: NASA
Explanation: What's that rising from the clouds?  The space shuttle.If you looked out the window of an airplane at just the right place and time last week, you could have seen something very unusual -- the space shuttle Endeavour launching to orbit.  Images of the rising shuttle and its plume became widely circulated over the web shortly after Endeavour's final launch.The above image was taken from a shuttle training aircraft and is not copyrighted.Taken well above the clouds, the image can be matched with similar images of the same shuttle plume taken below the clouds.  Hot glowing gasses expelled by the engines are visible near the rising shuttle, as well as a long smoke plume.  A shadow of the plume appears on the cloud deck, indicating the direction of the Sun.The shuttle Endeavour remains docked with the International Space Station and is currently scheduled to return to Earth next week.

说明: 是谁冲出云层呢?原来是太空船。上星期,如果在正确的时间从飞机窗户向外看,可能会看到非比寻常的景色—奋进号太空船升空的身影。这些影像在奋进号升空不久后,迅速地在网路上流传着。该影像从固定航班的飞机上所拍摄,并且没有版权问题。这张拍摄于云层之上的影像和其他云层下的影像有连贯性。并且,引擎所喷发的气体就在太空船身后发光,还拉着一阵长长的烟雾。烟雾的影子就投射在云砧上,藉此可辨识出太阳的位置。奋进号太空船目前还挂载在国际太空站上,预定下周返回地球。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-05-26 13:07 | 显示全部楼层
2011 May 26

Supernova Sonata
Title Image: Kepler'sSupernova Remnant -Chandra (X-ray) /HST (Optical) /Spitzer (IR)
Credit: Alex H. Parker(Univ. Victoria),Melissa L. Graham (Univ. California, Santa Barbara /LCOGT)
Explanation: To create a sonata from supernovae, first you have tofind the supernovae.To do that composers Alex Parker and Melissa Grahamrelied on theCanada FranceHawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Surveydata of four deep fields on the skymonitored from April 2003 through August 2006,adopting 241 Type Ia supernovae.Enchanting tocosmologists,Type Iasupernovae arethermonuclear explosions that destroy white dwarf stars.Then, they gave each supernova a note to play, the volume of the note determined by the distance to the supernova.Fainter, more distant supernovae play quieter notes.Each note's pitch was based on astretch factormeasured by how fast the supernova brightens and fades over timerelative to an adopted standard time history.Higher stretch factors play higher notes in pitches drawn from the illustratedPhrygiandominant scale.Of course, each supernova note is played on an instrument.Supernovae in massive galaxies were assigned to a stand-up bass, whilesupernovae in less massive galaxies played their note on a grand piano.Click on the image or follow these links(Vimeo,YouTube)to watch a time compressed animation of theCFHT Legacy Survey data whilelistening to the Supernova Sonata.

说明: 要用超新星来编写奏鸣曲 (sonata),你先得找到超新星。举例来说,作曲家Alex Parker和Melissa Graham,使用CFHT望远镜在2003年4月至2006年8月之间,所记录的四组深空巡天数据,并从其中找到241个Ia型超新星。这类让宇宙学家相当着迷的Ia型超新星,源自发生热核毁灭爆炸的白矮星。接下来,他们为每个超新星定个"音 (note)",音量视超新星的距离而异;较轻声对应较暗、较远的超新星。而此音的音高 (pitch),则依据超新星增亮及暗化时间快慢,相对某一标准时间变化先定出一个伸展因子 (stretch factor),并根据上图呈现的吉普赛音阶 (Phrygian dominant scale),为拥有较高伸展因子的超新星,定出较高之音高。在乐器选择上,大质量星系内的超新星,用低音提琴呈现,小质量星系内的超新星,则用平台式钢琴来弹奏。点选上面图片 (或选择Vimeo、YouTube连结),就可以看见快放的动态CFHT巡天数据,并聆听背景中的超新星奏鸣曲。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-05-30 18:18 | 显示全部楼层
2011 May 30

See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Last Panorama of the Spirit Rover on Mars
Credit: Mars Exploration Rover Mission, NASA, JPL, Cornell; Image Processing: Kenneth Kremer, Marco Di Lorenzo
Explanation: This is the last thing that the Spirit rover on Mars ever saw. Operating years beyond original expectations, Spirit eventually got mired in martian dirt and then ran out of power when investigating the unusual Home Plate surface feature on Mars. Visible in the above panorama are numerous rocks and slopes of the surrounding Columbia Hills of Mars. The strange hill with the light colored top, visible near the top center of the image, has been dubbed von Braun and was a future destination when Spirit got bogged down. A leading hypothesis holds that von Braun is related to martian volcanism. Last week, NASA stopped trying to contact Spirit after numerous attempts. Half a world away, Spirit's sister rover Opportunity continues to roll toward Endeavour Crater, which could become the largest crater yet visited by an earthling-created robot.
说明: 这是勇气号机器人在火星所见的最终景色。勇气号早已超出原先预定的生命期,然而,在调查本垒板的表面时,最终因为困在火星泥沙之中而终结他的生命。画面中可见大量的岩石,以及哥伦比亚山的山坡。在影像中央偏上处,有着浅色山顶的山丘的是冯布朗山,原先是勇气号陷入困境前的任务规画。有个假说认为冯布朗山是火星上的火山作用产生的。上个礼拜,美国太空总署总算在无数次的尝试后,放弃了勇气号。在半个火星外,勇气号的兄弟-机遇号仍旧持续往奋进坑前进,同时可能会成为人造物抵达的最大陨石坑纪录。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-02 16:22 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 jadiyd 于 2011-6-2 16:22 编辑

2011 June 2
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Endeavour's Starry Night
Credit: ISS Expedition 28, STS-134, NASA

Explanation: This luminous night view of the space shuttle orbiter Endeavour, docked with the International Space Station for a final time, was captured on May 28. Orbiting 350 kilometers above planet Earth, Endeavour's payload bay is lit up as it hurtles through Earth's shadow at 27,000 miles per hour. At the top of the frame, the jointed appendages of the station's robotic manipulator arm Dextre appear in silhouette. Motion during the long exposure produced streaks in the starry background and the city lights on the darkened planet below. Completing a 16 day mission, Endeavour made a it's final landing at Kennedy Space Center in the dark, early morning hours of June 1.
说明: 这幅拍摄于5月28日的明亮夜景,呈现了奋进号航天飞机最后一次停泊在国际太空站的情景。拍照时,奋进号载货舱灯火通明,在地表上空350公里高处,以43,200公里的时速穿过地球的暗影。在影像的顶端,可见到太空站节肢状Dextre机械手臂的剪影。受到长曝光期间高速飞行的影响,背景恒星和地球夜面的都市灯火,都拉出了条状的流光。在完成了为期16天的任务后,奋进号在6月1日幽暗的清晨时分,最后一次降落回到肯尼迪太空中心。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-03 17:00 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 3
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Midnight's Solar Eclipse
Credit & Copyright: Catalin Beldea (Stiinta si Tehnica Team)

Explanation: On June 1, the shadow of the New Moon was cast across a land of the midnight Sun in this year's second partial solar eclipse. This picture of the geocentric celestial event above the Arctic Circle was taken near midnight from northern Finland's Kaunispää Hill in Lapland. Of course the region's reindeer were able to watch as both Moon and Sun hugged the northern horizon just above a cloud bank. Also visible from parts of Alaska and Canada, the eclipse began at sunrise in Siberia and northern China at 19:25 UT, ending about 3.5 hours later north of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Ocean. Remarkably, just one lunation later, on July 1 the New Moon's shadow will again reach out and touch the Earth in a partial solar eclipse, limited in visibility to a relatively small area in the Antarctic Ocean. July's eclipse will be followed by the fourth and final partial solar eclipse of 2011 on November 25. That eclipse will be seen from a southern land of the midnight Sun.
说明: 在6月1日的子夜时分,新月暗影降临到地球北方的子夜太阳区 (land of the midnight Sun)之地面,带来了今年的第二个日偏食。上面这个地心事件的影像,拍摄于芬兰北极圈内的拉普兰的Kaunispaa山。当然除了人类之外,当地的驯鹿,也见证了此一月亮和太阳在北方云层上方会合的事件。这次日食,起始于19:25 UT日出时分的西伯利亚和北中国,延伸经过美国的阿拉斯加州和加拿大,大约3个半小时后,终止于加拿大的纽芬兰 (Newfoundland)。很有趣的,一个月后的7月1日,新月暗影将再度降临大地,带来另一个日偏食事件,不过只有南冰洋 (Antarctic Ocean)内的一个小区域才得见。在7月的日偏食之后,接着在11月25日,会出现2011年第四个,也是最后一个日偏食,可见的区域则在地球南方的子夜太阳区。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-04 16:44 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 4
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Dawn's Grand Finale
Image Credit & Copyright: Luis Argerich

Explanation: After more than a month, the lovely lineup of four naked-eye planets in dawn skies is coming to a close. Still, on May 31st a slender Moon joined the grouping along the eastern horizon for a final celestial performance, presented in this early morning scene from a beach near Buenos Aires, Argentina. A favorable view of the configuration in the southern hemisphere autumn, the photo was taken about 30 minutes before sunrise. In order from bottom to top, wandering Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter are stretched along the ecliptic plane. The Moon's sunlit crescent is sinking into the colorful twilight glow just left of Mercury. In dawns to come, Mars and Jupiter will continue to rise while Venus and Mercury sink toward the horizon, drawing closer to the rising Sun.
说明: 经过了一个月,黎明天空四颗裸视行星的聚会即将画下句点。5月31日,纤细的新月加入了这场聚会,为这个天文事件带来了落幕高潮。上面这幅影像摄于观测条件较佳的南半球,地点是阿根廷的布宜诺斯艾利斯,时间则在日出前大约30分钟。影像中,行星依序由下至上,为分布于黄道面上的水星、金星、火星、和木星。眉月则沉浸在水星左方的暖色曙光中。在接下来的黎明,火星和木星将持续攀升,而金星和水星将向地平面沉降,越来越靠近太阳。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-05 20:49 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 5
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Another Nearby Supernova in the Whirlpool Galaxy
Credit & Copyright: Stephane Lamotte Bailey, Marc Deldem, & Jean-Luc Dauvergne

Explanation: One of the brightest supernovas in recent years has just been recorded in the nearby Whirlpool galaxy (M51). Surprisingly, a seemingly similar supernova was recorded in M51 during 2005, following yet another one that occurred in 1994. Three supernovas in 17 years is a lot for single galaxy, and reasons for the supernova surge in M51 are being debated. Pictured above are two images of M51 taken with a small telescope: one taken on May 30 that does not show the supernova, and one taken on June 2 which does. The June 2 image is one of the first images reported to contain the supernova. The images are blinked to show the location of the exploded star. Although most supernovas follow classic brightness patterns, the precise brightening and dimming pattern of this or any supernova is hard to predict in advance and can tell astronomers much about what is happening. Currently, the M51 supernova, designated SN 2011dh, is still bright enough to follow with a small telescope. Therefore, sky enthusiasts are encouraged to image the Whirlpool galaxy as often as possible to fill in time gaps left by intermittent observations made by the world's most powerful telescopes. Views of the developing supernova are being uploaded here.
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-06 16:07 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 6
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Geometer's Playground Over Wyoming
Credit & Copyright: Robert Arn (Colorado St. U.)

Explanation: If you travel several kilometers off a main highway through Wyoming, you may see an unusual sight. In particular, near Buford, Wyoming, USA, you could run across the geometric Ames Monument, visible on the right, built to commemorate the financiers of a historic transcontinental railroad across North America. The above spectacular wide field mosaic, however, has also captured other geometric designs, many of them far in the distance. On the far left, for example, is a lunar halo surrounding by a lunar corona surrounding the setting Moon. On the right, however, is the arch of the central band of our Milky Way Galaxy surrounding the pyramidal structure. Illuminating the horizon to the right of the monument are the city lights of Cheyenne. The menagerie of images used to create this 360-degree composite were all taken during a single night last month. Still, the digital stitching of images taken over such a long period of time has led to a few unnatural land and sky justapositions. Can you identify any?
说明: 如果沿着主要快速道路开车经过怀俄明州 (Wyoming),不妨暂时偏离数公里,或许你会见到一些不寻常的景像。举例来说,在美国.怀俄明州的Buford附近,可见到影像右方纪念当年兴建北美州横贯铁路 (transcontinental railroad)出资者的的Ames纪念碑。而在这幅精彩的广角拼嵌影像里,还可见到远在纪念碑后方天空的其他几何图案,包括左方环绕西沉明月月晕的月华 (lunar corona),以及尖塔状纪念碑上方的拱型银河 盘面,而照亮纪念碑右方地平面的灯火,则来自夏安市 (Cheyenne)。用以建构这幅360度全景影像的序列照片,拍摄于上个月的某晚,不过照片拍摄的时间有相当之间隔,因此组合影像含有一些不寻常的地面和天空并置,你认得出来吗?
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-07 18:51 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 7
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
A Last Landing for Space Shuttle Endeavour
Credit: NASA, Bill Ingalls

Explanation: Space shuttle Endeavour is home to stay. In a rare night landing last week, Endeavour glided onto a runway in Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA completing a 16-day mission that included a visit to the International Space Station (ISS). All told, space shuttle Endeavour flew 25 flights since being deployed by NASA in 1992, spending a total of 299 days in space. Endeavour's next mission will be a stationary one in the California Science Center. Even as Endeavour was landing, the space shuttle Atlantis was being rolled out in preparation for the last mission of any Space Shuttle, a mission currently scheduled to being on July 8.
说明: 奋进号航天飞机返家长住了。上星期经过少有的夜间降落后,奋进号降落在美国.佛罗里达州的卡纳维尔角 (Cape Canaveral)的跑道上,结束了造访国际太空站的16天任务。自1992年首航之后,奋进号总共执行了25次飞航任务,在太空中停留了299天。接下来奋进号将转移到加州太空中心静态展示。在奋进号降落之时,亚特兰提斯号航天飞机正好被推出机棚,准备在7月8日执行最后一次任务。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-08 18:11 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 8
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Space Shuttle and Space Station Photographed Together
Credit: NASA

Explanation: How was this picture taken? Usually, pictures of the shuttle, taken from space, are snapped from the space station. Commonly, pictures of the space station are snapped from the shuttle. How, then, can there be a picture of both the shuttle and the station together, taken from space? The answer is that during the Space Shuttle Endeavour's last trip to the International Space Station two weeks ago, a supply ship departed the station with astronauts that captured a series of rare views. The supply ship was the Russian Soyuz TMA-20 which landed in Kazakhstan later that day. The above spectacular image well captures the relative sizes of the station and docked shuttle. Far below, clouds of Earth are seen above a blue sea. The next and last launch of a US space shuttle is scheduled for early July.
说明: 最后一架航天飞机已经启程,前往发射塔。上面这张在上星期拍摄的亚特兰提斯号航天飞机影像,代表美国航太总署航天飞机机队的最后移机过程。影像拍照时,它正缓缓移动前往第39A发射塔,预计在7月飞射前往国际太空站。此次的STS-135任务,将是NASA航天飞机机队的第135次也是最后一次任务。亚特兰提斯号的四人机组人员,将带着多用途后勤模组舱Raffaello前去国际太空站,内装有国际太空站所需的关键元件和补给品。在上面影像中,庞大的航天飞机搬运车搭载着太空梭,以两公里的时速展开全长五公里的旅程。当时,明亮的氙聚光灯照亮了这艘庞然的火箭船,周围则有工作人员忙碌地照料着它。沿途有超过有15,000位观众,观看此一历史性的离棚过程,包括照片右端的那一些。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-09 17:48 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 9
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
The Great Carina Nebula
Image Credit & Copyright: Robert Gendler (Processing), Ryan Hannahoe (Acquisition)
Additional data from the ESO/Danish 1.5m telescope at La Silla, Chile (R.Gendler, J.-E.Ovaldsen, C.Thöne, C.Feron).

Explanation: A jewel of the southern sky, the Great Carina Nebula, also known as NGC 3372, spans over 300 light-years, one of our galaxy's largest star forming regions. Like the smaller, more northerly Great Orion Nebula, the Carina Nebula is easily visible to the unaided eye, though at a distance of 7,500 light-years it is some 5 times farther away. This gorgeous telescopic portrait reveals remarkable details of the region's glowing filaments of interstellar gas and obscuring cosmic dust clouds. Wider than the Full Moon in angular size, the field of view stretches nearly 100 light-years across the nebula. The Carina Nebula is home to young, extremely massive stars, including the still enigmatic variable Eta Carinae, a star with well over 100 times the mass of the Sun. Eta Carinae is the brightest star at the left, near the dusty Keyhole Nebula (NGC 3324). While Eta Carinae itself maybe on the verge of a supernova explosion, X-ray images indicate that the Great Carina Nebula has been a veritable supernova factory.
说明: 南天珍宝之一的船底座大星云 (Great Carina Nebula),亦名为NGC 3372,大小超过三百光年,是我们银河系最大的恒星形成区之一。和北天较小的猎户座大星云一样,船底座大星云也是肉眼轻易可见的天体,但它距离有七千五百光年,大约是猎户座大星云的五倍远。这幅壮丽的望远镜影像,呈现了这个区域光亮星际云气丝和黝黑尘埃云的许多细微结构。这幅影像的张角比满月大,大约涵盖此星云100光年的视野。船底座大星云拥有一些非常大质量的年轻恒星,包括谜样多变、质量超过太阳百倍的海山二星 (Eta Carinae)。在这片星野里,海山二星是锁孔星云(NGC 3324)左方那颗最亮的恒星。海山二星可能即将发生超新星爆炸,而X射线波段的观测指出,船底座大星云是个名符其实的超新星制造工厂。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-10 16:38 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 10
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
The Sun Unleashed
NASA / Goddard / SDO AIA Team

Explanation: On June 7, the Sun unleashed only a medium sized solar flare as rotation carried active regions of sunpots toward the solar limb. But that flare was followed by an astounding gush of magnetized plasma seen erupting at the Sun's edge in this extreme ultraviolet image from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Spectacular movies of the event follow the darker, cooler plasma over a period of hours as it rains down across a broad area of the Sun's surface, arcing along otherwise invisible magnetic field lines. An associated coronal mass ejection, a massive cloud of high energy particles, was blasted in the general direction of the Earth and may have already triggered auroral activity after a glancing blow to Earth's magnetosphere.
说明: 6月7日,当太阳的自转把活跃区带到临边时,太阳发生了一个中级的日闪。不过在这个日闪之后,紧接着见到一团磁化的电浆从太阳的侧边窜出,如这张由太阳动态观测卫星的远紫光相机影像所示。数幅精彩的动态影像,追踪了这团较冷暗的电浆,如何在数小时期间沿着不可见的磁场线,蜿蜒洒落在大片的太阳表面上。除此之外,一个附随的日冕物质抛射事件也发生在这个区域,把大量的高能粒子往地球的方向喷,在擦撞地球的磁层之后,可能也会引发极光活动。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-11 16:17 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 11
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Supernovae in the Whirlpool
Image Credit & Copyright: R Jay Gabany

Explanation: Where do spiral galaxies keep their supernovae? Near their massive star forming regions, of course, and those regions tend to lie along sweeping blue spiral arms. Because massive stars are very short-lived, they don't have a chance to wander far from their birth place. Remarkably, in the last 6 years two Type II supernovae, representing the death explosions of massive stars, have been detected in nearby spiral M51. Along with a third supernova seen in 1994, that amounts to a supernova bonanza for a single galaxy. As demonstrated in these comparison images, SN2005cs, the supernova discovered in 2005, and more recently SN2011dh, the exceptionally bright supernova first recorded just last month, both lie along M51's grand spiral arms. Perhaps the original spiral nebula, M51 is also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy.
说明: 在螺旋星系内,超新星会出现在那些区域?当然是在大质量恒星的形成区附近,而这种区域通常分佈在广延的蓝色螺旋臂上。因为大质量恒星很短命,因此它们没有机会漂离它们的诞生地太远。非常引人注目的,邻近的涡旋星系M51,在过去6年之中,就出现了两颗大质量恒星死亡爆炸而产生的第二型超新星,如再加上1994年的第三颗,对单一星系来说绝对称得上是超新星大丰收。如上面这幅比较影像所示,它们分别为SN2005cs (发现于2005年)和发现于上个月刚出现的极端明亮SN2011dh,位置都在M51鲜明的螺旋臂上。M51可能是螺旋星云 (spiral nebula)因而得名的原型天体,又也常被称为是涡旋星系 (Whirlpool Galaxy)。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-12 16:15 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 12
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
M64: The Sleeping Beauty Galaxy
Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI), S. Smartt (IoA) & D. Richstone (U. Michigan) et al.

Explanation: The Sleeping Beauty galaxy may appear peaceful at first sight but it is actually tossing and turning. In an unexpected twist, recent observations have shown that the gas in the outer regions of this photogenic spiral is rotating in the opposite direction from all of the stars! Collisions between gas in the inner and outer regions are creating many hot blue stars and pink emission nebula. The above image was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2001 and released in 2004. The fascinating internal motions of M64, also cataloged as NGC 4826, are thought to be the result of a collision between a small galaxy and a large galaxy where the resultant mix has not yet settled down.
说明: 乍看之下,睡美人星系(Sleeping Beauty galaxy)貌似很宁静,实际上它翻腾不休。更出乎意料的是,最近观测证实这个很上镜头的螺旋星系,外围区域旋转的方向和所有的恒星相反。因此外围和内层云气互撞,形成许多炽热的蓝色恒星和粉红色的发射星云。上面这张影像是由哈伯太空望远镜摄于2001年,不过直到2004年才发布。M64又名为NGC 4826,它奇特内部运动,可能是大星系和小星系互撞的结果,合并后的星系尚未稳定下来。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-14 16:44 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 14
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
The Universe Nearby
Credit: 2MASS, T. H. Jarrett, J. Carpenter, & R. Hurt

Explanation: What does the universe nearby look like? This plot shows nearly 50,000 galaxies in the nearby universe detected by the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in infrared light. The resulting image is anincredible tapestry of galaxies that provides limits on how the universe formed and evolved. The dark band across the image center is blocked by dust in the plane of our own Milky Way Galaxy. Away from the Galactic plane, however, each dot represents a galaxy, color coded to indicate distance. Bluer dots represent the nearer galaxies in the 2MASS survey, while redder dots indicating the more distant survey galaxies that lie at a redshift near 0.1. Named structures are annotated around the edges. Many galaxies are gravitationally bound together to form clusters, which themselves are loosely bound into superclusters, which in turn are sometimes seen to align over even larger scale structures.
说明: 在我们附近的宇宙空间看起来是什么样子?这张图是由2微米巡天计画(2MASS)的红外光所拍摄,展示出邻近的宇宙区域中,约莫5万个星系。这张图像看起来就像是以星系组成的美丽刺绣一样,提供了宇宙如何形成与发展的限制条件。横跨中心区域的暗带是我们银河系的盘面。银河盘面以外的区域,那一个一个小点都代表的星系,颜色则意表着距离的远近。蓝色是2MASS巡天计画中距离最近的星系,红色则是最远的星系,红位移大概是0.1。部份的结构是有注释的。大部分的星系都因重力束缚而形成星系团,星系团本身也以较散的束缚结构,形成超星系团,当然,有时可能会形成更大尺度的结构。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-15 16:30 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 15
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Millions of Stars in Omega Centauri
Image Credit & Copyright: Gordon Mandell

Explanation: Featured in this sharp telescopic image, globular star cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) is some 15,000 light-years away. Some 150 light-years in diameter, the cluster is packed with about 10 million stars much older than the Sun. Omega Cen is the largest of 200 or so known globular clusters that roam the halo of our Milky Way galaxy. Though most star clusters consist of stars with the same age and composition, the enigmatic Omega Cen exhibits the presence of different stellar populations with a spread of ages and chemical abundances. In fact, Omega Cen may be the remnant core of a small galaxy merging with the Milky Way.
说明: 半人马座的球状星团欧米伽星团(NGC 5139)在这精彩的望远镜的影像之中,欧米伽星团大约15,000光年之遥,直径约150光年,可能拥有10百万颗比太阳还老的恒星。在目前已知的两百个球状星团中,欧米伽星团算是最大的一个,这些球状星团蔓延在我们银河系的银河晕上。虽然大部分的星团组成都是由年龄相彷的恒星构成,而欧米伽星团却存在了不同年龄层的成员,还拥有了不同的化学组成。事实上,欧米伽星团有可能是我们银河的小星系所残馀的核心所构成。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-16 12:37 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 16
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Mercury's Surface in Exaggerated Color
Credit: NASA/JHU APL/CIW

Explanation: The robotic MESSENGER spacecraft recently completed over 100 orbits of Mercury. Messenger's cameras have recorded detailed pictures utilizing eight different colors across visible and near infrared light, exploring the surface composition and looking for clues to the history and evolution of the solar system's innermost planet. This sharp image combines three of the MESSENGER wide angle camera's colors, but in exaggerated fashion. Otherwise, to the unaided human eye, Mercury's surface colors would appear comparatively muted. The image is about 1,000 kilometers across and features as small as a single kilometer are discernible at the original resolution. Today, the Messenger project will release new images and science findings from the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.
说明: 信使号探测船最近刚绕行水星满100圈。同时信使号的相机组,在可见光到近红外光等8个不同颜色的波段,仔细地记录了许多影像,用以探索这颗太阳系最内围行星的表面组成,以及它过去的历史和演化之迹证。这幅清晰影像组合了信使号广角相机三个颜色的照片,不过其中的颜色经过夸饰。否则的话,在人类的肉眼中,水星表面的色泽会显得相当单调。这张跨幅约有1,000公里的影像,以原来的解析度呈现了一公里以上的水星表面结构。在今天,信使号计划办公室,将发布首颗绕行水星的太空船回传之新影像和科学发现。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-17 13:27 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 17
See Explanation. Moving the cursor over the image will bring up an annotated version. Clicking on the image will bring up the highest resolution version available.
Eclipsed Moon in the Milky Way
Image Credit & Copyright: Babak Tafreshi (TWAN)

Explanation: On June 15, the totally eclipsed Moon was very dark, with the Moon itself positioned on the sky toward the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. This simple panorama captures totality from northern Iran in 8 consecutive exposures each 40 seconds long. In the evocative scene, the dark of the eclipsed Moon competes with the Milky Way's faint glow. The tantalizing red lunar disk lies just above the bowl of the dark Pipe Nebula, to the right of the glowing Lagoon and Trifid nebulae and the central Milky Way dust clouds. At the far right, the wide field is anchored by yellow Antares and the colorful clouds of Rho Ophiuchi. To identify other sights of the central Milky Way just slide your cursor over the image. The total phase of this first lunar eclipse of 2011 lasted an impressive 100 minutes. Parts of the eclipse were visible from most of planet Earth, with notable exceptions of North and Central America.
说明: 在6月15日,月亮沉浸于银河系中央处时,因为月全食而让天空暗了下来。这张全景影像拍摄于伊朗北方,连续曝光八次,每次40秒而捕捉下月全食的模样。全食的月亮伴随着银河的淡淡星光,着实令人回味无穷。诱人的红色月球位在黑暗烟斗星云上方,三裂星云与潟湖星云(Lagoon nebula)的右方,沉浸于银河尘埃云之中。然而遥远右方处,还可见黄色的心宿二与缤纷的心宿增四星(Rho Ophiuchi)。移动鼠标到影像上,标示出其他的星体。这个今年首度登场的月全食历时100分钟,部分地区可见月偏食,不过像是美国中部与北部地区则不可见。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-19 12:13 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 18
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Lightning Eclipse from the Planet of the Goats
Credit & Copyright: Chris Kotsiopoulos (GreekSky)

Explanation: Thunderstorms almost spoiled this view of the spectacular June 15 total lunar eclipse. Instead, storm clouds parted for 10 minutes during the total eclipse phase and lightning bolts contributed to the dramatic sky. Captured with a 30 second exposure the scene also inspired what, in the 16 year history of Astronomy Picture of the Day, the editor considers may be the best title yet for a picture (title credit to Chris K.). Of course, the lightning reference clearly makes sense, and the shadow play of the dark lunar eclipse was widely viewed across planet Earth in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The picture itself, however, was shot from the Greek island of Ikaria at Pezi. That area is known as "the planet of the goats" because of the rough terrain and strange looking rocks.
说明: 雷雨系统几乎破坏了这幅精彩的6月15日月全食影像。幸好,雷雨云在月全食期间裂开了近十分钟,而闪电更为这幅动人的夜景增添风采。这张用30秒曝光时间所拍摄的影像,拍摄者Chris Kotsiopoulos所选用影像标题和内容的切合度,每日天文图的编辑们认为可能是16年来最佳者。影像所指的闪电当然无疑,而全食月的光和影,更广为地球欧洲、非洲、亚洲、澳洲的住民所共赏。这幅影像取景于希腊.Ikaria岛的Pezi村,这区域因为地貌崎岖、岩石狰狞,而被称为是山羊的国度 (the planet of the goats)。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-19 21:09 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 19
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
The Regolith of Asteroid Eros
Credit: NEAR Project, JHU APL, NASA

Explanation: From fifty kilometers above asteroid Eros, the surface inside one of its largest craters appears covered with an unusual substance: regolith. The thickness and composition of the surface dust that is regolith remains a topic of much research. Much of the regolith on 433 Eros was probably created by numerous small impacts during its long history. In this representative-color view taken by the robot spacecraft NEAR-SHOEMAKER that orbited Eros in 2000 and 2001, brown areas indicate regolith that has been chemically altered by exposure to the solar wind during micrometeorite impacts. White areas are thought to have undergone relatively less exposure. The boulders visible inside the crater appear brown, indicating either that they are old enough to have a surface itself tanned by the solar wind, or that they have somehow become covered with some dark surface dust. This July, NASA's Dawn spacecraft will orbit giant main belt asteroid Vesta.
说明: 在爱神星 (433 Eros)上空五十公里的地方往下看,这个大陨石坑的表面,似乎铺着一层很不寻常的腐岩 (regolith)。这层表层尘土的厚度和成份,现在仍是科学研究的热门题材。爱神星表面的腐岩,可能大部份来自它长期以来受到无数小型陨石撞击所产生。这张代表色影像,是由在2000到2001年期间绕行爱神星的会合-修梅克号探测船所拍摄。照片中棕色的区域,代表在微陨石撞击的期间,腐岩曝露在太阳风中,因而化学成份发生变化。而白色的区域,则可能是曝晒的时间较短。陨石坑内的大型圆石,它们棕色的外观指出,它们可能很古老,因而在太阳风吹袭下变了颜色,不然的话,就是它们的表面不知为何也罩着一层深色的粉尘。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-20 22:25 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 20
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Last Roll Out of a NASA Space Shuttle
Credit & Copyright: Ben Cooper (Launch Photography)

Explanation: In the final move of its kind, NASA's space shuttle Atlantis was photographed earlier this month slowly advancing toward Launch Pad 39A, where it is currently scheduled for a July launch to the International Space Station. The mission, designated STS-135, is the 135th and last mission for a NASA space shuttle. Atlantis and its four-person crew will be carrying, among other things, the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello to bring key components and supplies to the ISS. Pictured above, the large Shuttle Crawler Transporter rolls the powerful orbiter along the five-kilometer long road at less than two kilometers per hour. Over 15,000 spectators, some visible on the right, were on hand for the historic roll out.
说明: 最后一艘航天飞机已经启程,前往飞射塔。上面这张在上星期拍摄的亚特兰蒂斯号太空梭影像,代表美国航太总署航天飞机机队的最后移机过程。影像拍照时,它正缓缓移动前往第39A发射塔,预计在7月飞射前往国际太空站。此次的STS-135任务,将是NASA航天飞机的第135次也是最后一次任务。亚特兰蒂斯号的四人机组人员,将带着多用途后勤模组舱Raffaello前去国际太空站,内装有国际太空站所需的关键元件和补给品。在上面影像中,庞大的搬运车搭载着航天飞机,以两公里的时速展开全长五公里的旅程。沿途有超过有15,000位观众,观看此一历史性的离棚过程,包括照片右端的那一些。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-21 18:37 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 21
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Eclipsed Moonlight
Image Credit & Copyright: Javier Algarra

Explanation: A celestial prelude to today's solstice, the June 15 total lunar eclipse was one of the longest in recent years. It was also one of the darkest, but not completely dark. Even during totality, a somber, red lunar disk could be seen in the starry night sky, reflecting reddened light falling on to its surface. Seen from a lunar perspective, the ruddy illumination is from all the sunsets and sunrises around the edges of a silhouetted Earth. In this sharp portrait of the eclipsed Moon from Granada, Spain, the Moon's edge reflects a bluish tinge as well as it emerges from Earth's umbral shadow. The bluer light is still filtered through Earth's atmosphere, but originates in rays of sunlight passing through layers high in the upper stratosphere. That light is colored by ozone that absorbs red light and transmits bluer hues.
说明:6月15日的月全食掀启了夏至的序幕该月全食是今几年来历时最长的月全食,堪称是月亮最暗的状态,不过并不是完全变黑即使是全食阶段,淡淡的红色月亮还是依稀可见于星空之中,月面上反映出淡淡的红色光,从月亮的视角看全食,红润的光芒是日出与日落沿着地球轮廓边缘透露过来,这张月亮肖像照拍摄于西班牙的格拉纳达,当月亮整个没入了地球本影之后,在边缘还反射了些许蓝光,蓝光是太阳光穿过地球的上平流层,这光线是平流层上的臭氧吸收了红色光以及穿透了蓝光而产生。

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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-22 14:15 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 22
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
MESSENGER's Degas View
Credit: NASA/JHU APL/CIW

Explanation: Now imaging inner planet Mercury from orbit, the MESSENGER spacecraft wide angle camera has returned this impressive color view of Degas Crater, with a full resolution of 90 meters per pixel. Named for the impressionist painter, the 52 kilometer diameter crater is also shown in an inset context image from the Mariner 10 flyby mission in the mid 1970s. In MESSENGER's view, the crater floor is seen to be filled with an intricate series of cracks, formed as the molten surface resulting from the impact cooled and contracted. Starkly bright, patchy deposits, suggesting compositional differences and freshly exposed material, standout around the crater's central peaks and walls. Details of similar bright deposits are seen in even higher resolution images from MESSENGER.
说明: 现在,运行于太阳系最内侧的太空船--信使号太空船,利用了广视野相机取得了这惊人的底卡斯陨石坑(Degas Crater),影像,解析度高达90公尺。直径宽达52公里的陨石坑以印象派画家为名,图中的小插图则是由1970年代的水手10号太空船执行任务时所得。信使号太空船在底卡斯陨石坑表面,观测到因为熔融的冷却收缩所产生的错综复杂裂痕。朴实明亮,并且散落的沉积物,这些位在陨石坑中央高点与周围的特征,让人联想到是由不同组成,并且包含近期才裸露的物质。
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-23 21:08 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 23
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Stereo Helene
Credit: Cassini Imaging Team, ISS, JPL, ESA, NASA; Stereo Image by Roberto Beltramini

Explanation: Get out your red/blue glasses and float next to Helene, small, icy moon of Saturn. Appropriately named, Helene is one of four known Trojan moons, so called because it orbits at a Lagrange point. A Lagrange point is a gravitationally stable position near two massive bodies, in this case Saturn and larger moon Dione. In fact, irregularly shaped ( about 36 by 32 by 30 kilometers) Helene orbits at Dione's leading Lagrange point while brotherly ice moon Polydeuces follows at Dione's trailing Lagrange point. The sharp stereo anaglyph was constructed from two Cassini images (N00172886, N00172892) captured during the recent close flyby. It shows part of the Saturn-facing hemisphere of Helene mottled with craters and gully-like features.
说明: 取出你的红/蓝眼镜,一起飘浮在土星小型冰质卫星海伦的旁边。土星的卫星海伦(Helene),是四颗现知位在拉格朗日点的特洛伊卫星(Trojan moons)之一,是以命名极为贴切。拉格朗日点(Lagrange point)是两颗有质量物体间的重力稳定位置,在此例中的两物体,为土星和它较大的卫星Dione (土卫四)。形状不规则的卫星海伦(体积约为36 x 32 x 30公里),轨道领先土卫四,而另一颗冰质卫星Polydeuces,则位在落后的拉格朗日点上。这张清晰的红蓝立体影像,建构自卡西尼号最近飞越所拍的二张照片(N00172886、N00172892),它呈现了海伦卫星部份面向土星的半球,上面布满着陨石坑和峡沟构造。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-24 23:11 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 24
See Explanation. Moving the cursor over the image will bring up an annotated version. Clicking on the image will bring up the highest resolution version available.
The Big Dipper
Image Credit & Copyright: Rogelio Bernal Andreo

Explanation: The best known asterism in northern skies, The Big Dipper is easy to recognize, though some might see The Plough. Either way, the star names and the familiar outlines will appear in this thoughtfully composed 24 frame mosaic when you slide your cursor over the image. Dubhe, alpha star of the dipper's parent constellation Ursa Major is at the upper right. Together with beta star Merak below, the two form a line pointing the way to Polaris and the North Celestial Pole off the top edge of the field. Notable too in skygazing lore Mizar, second star from the left in the dipper's handle, forms a vision-testing visual double star with apparently close Alcor. Also identified in the famous star field are Messier catalog objects. Download the higher resolution image to hunt for exquisite views of some of Messier's distant spiral galaxies and a more local owl.
说明: 这个外表像个勺子,十分好认的星群是北方天空最著名的一群,名为北斗七星(The Big Dipper)。当滑鼠移动到影像上时,可看见另外一个标示出这些星星的名字与熟悉的连线的版本,通通都出现在这张叠合了24张图像的照片。在影像右上方的天枢(Dubhe),是北斗七星最亮的一颗星,同时也是大熊座的阿尔法星。天枢与下方的天璇(Merak)连线可指往北极星,就在图片上方外。在斗柄左方数来第二颗星星是著名的传说--开阳双星系统,过去用来与开阳伴星(Alcor)的分辨能力做为视力检视标准。同时该影像还标示梅西尔星表中著名的星体。下载高解析度影像,还能看到一些梅西尔遥远螺旋星系外,甚至还可看到猫头鹰星云。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-25 16:17 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 25
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Eclipse over the Acropolis
Image Credit & Copyright: Elias Politis

Explanation: The total phase of the June 15 lunar eclipse lasted an impressive 100 minutes. Its entire duration is covered in this composite of a regular sequence of digital camera exposures, tracking the dark lunar disk as it arced above the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. In fact, around 270 BCE Greek astronomer Aristarchus also tracked the duration of lunar eclipses, though without the benefit of digital clocks and cameras. Still, using geometry, he devised a simple and impressively accurate way to calculate the Moon's distance, in terms of the radius of planet Earth, from the eclipse duration. A more modern Greek astronomer, Elias Politis titled this eclipse duration study and the accompanying youtube timelapse video "Acropoclipse".
说明: 6月15日月食的全食阶段,精彩的延续了100分钟。上面这幅用数码相机照片组合出来的影像,完整追踪了黝黑月盘滑过希腊.雅典卫城 (Acropolis)上空的景像。事实上,远在西元前270年左右,希腊天文学家阿里斯塔克斯(Aristarchus)就曾全程观测过月食,只不过他手边缺乏数位计时器和相机这类的趁手工具。不过使用几何学,他还是能由月食延续的时间,以地球半径为长度单位,简洁精确地推算出月球的距离。制作这幅影像的Elias Politis是位当代的希腊天文学者,他称这幅影像为「月食长度探索」,称相对应的youtube时序动画为卫城月食(Acropoclipse)。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-26 18:41 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 26
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
NGC 3132: The Eight Burst Nebula
Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

Explanation: It's the dim star, not the bright one, near the center of NGC 3132 that created this odd but beautiful planetary nebula. Nicknamed the Eight-Burst Nebula and the Southern Ring Nebula, the glowing gas originated in the outer layers of a star like our Sun. In this representative color picture, the hot blue pool of light seen surrounding this binary system is energized by the hot surface of the faint star. Although photographed to explore unusual symmetries, it's the asymmetries that help make this planetary nebula so intriguing. Neither the unusual shape of the surrounding cooler shell nor the structure and placements of the cool filamentary dust lanes running across NGC 3132 are well understood.
说明: 在NGC 3132里,产生这个奇特美丽行星状星云的恒星,并非是星云中心的亮星,而是它旁边较暗的那颗。这团源自类太阳恒星外层云气的辉光云气,常见的名称有八字星云(Eight-Burst Nebula)和南环状星云。在这张代表色影像里,环绕着这个双星系统的蓝色辉光,是由暗星的炽热表面所激发出来的。虽然拍摄这张影像的原来目的,是想要探索这个星云形状的对称性,不过,后来反而是这个行星状星云的不对称性成了它最有趣之特点。到目前为止,星云形状特异的气壳以及贯穿NGC 3132的尘埃带之结构和位置,都还是天文学没有完全解决的难题。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-27 13:32 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 27
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Stars and Dust Across Corona Australis
Credit & Copyright: Leonardo Julio (Astronomia Pampeana)

Explanation: Cosmic dust clouds sprawl across a rich field of stars in this sweeping telescopic vista near the northern boundary of Corona Australis, the Southern Crown. Probably less than 500 light-years away and effectively blocking light from more distant, background stars in the Milky Way, the densest part of the dust cloud is about 8 light-years long. At its tip (upper right) is a group of lovely reflection nebulae cataloged as NGC 6726, 6727, 6729, and IC 4812. A characteristic blue color is produced as light from hot stars is reflected by the cosmic dust. The smaller yellowish nebula (NGC 6729) surrounds young variable star R Coronae Australis. Magnificent globular star cluster NGC 6723 is toward the upper right corner of the view. While NGC 6723 appears to be part of the group, it actually lies nearly 30,000 light-years away, far beyond the Corona Australis dust clouds.
说明: 在南冕座这幅望远镜视野里,一个尘埃云蜿蜒穿过繁星点点的星场。这朵尘埃云的距离可能不到五百光年远,它遮掩了来自银河较遥远背景恒星的星光。尘埃云最致密的区域全长约为八光年,在右上端处有一系列美丽的反射星云,其编号分别为NGC 6726、6727、 6729、及IC 4812,它们特有的蓝色色泽则来自尘埃反射了炽热恒星的星光。蓝色星云附近有个带有淡黄色的小小星云(NGC 6729),它标定了年轻变星南冕座R星之所在,而右上方的壮丽球状星团是NGC 6723。 NGC 6723好像只在南冕座外面一些的半人马座内,实际上它的距离将近有三万光年,比南冕座尘埃云要远得很多。 (南冕座-- Corona Australis;南冕座R星-- R Coronae Australis)
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-29 03:11 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 28
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Stardust and Betelgeuse
ESO, Pierre Kervella (LESIA, Observatoire de Paris), et al.

Explanation: An expansive nebula of dust is seen to surround red supergiant star Betegeuse in this remarkable high resolution composite, an infrared VLT image from the European Southern Observatory. Betelgeuse itself is outlined by the small, central red circle. If found in our own solar system its diameter would almost encompass the orbit of Jupiter. But the larger envelope of circumstellar dust extends some 60 billion kilometers into space, equivalent to about 400 times the Earth-Sun distance. The dust is likely formed as the swollen atmosphere of the supergiant sheds material into space, a final phase in the evolution of a massive star. Mixing with the interstellar medium, the dust could ultimately form rocky terrestrial planets like Earth. The central bright portion of the outer image has been masked to reveal fainter extended structures. The field of view is 5.63 arcseconds across.
说明: 天文学家利用欧洲南方天文台红外光波段的超大望远镜,拍摄到浩瀚尘埃组成的星云就围绕在红巨星参宿四附近。参宿四本身以小红圈圈标示。如果将参宿四放到太阳系中心的话,该直径约可达到木星的位置。然而,这云气结构宽达600亿公里,相当于400倍的日地距离。这些尘埃像是大质量恒星演化的最终阶段,膨胀的红巨星不停地将气壳物质抛射到宇宙之中。混杂于这些星际物质的尘埃,可能会产生像地球一样主要由岩石组成的星球。中央明亮的部分由黑色圆盘遮掩住,才让较暗的云气结构突显出来。这张影像的视角为5.63角秒。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-29 16:18 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 29
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Abell 2744: Pandora's Cluster of Galaxies
Image Credit: NASA, ESA, J. Merten (ITA, AOB), & D. Coe (STScI)

Explanation: Why is this cluster of galaxies so jumbled? Far from a smooth distribution, Abell 2744 not only has knots of galaxies, but the X-ray emitting hot gas (colored red) in the cluster appears distributed differently than the dark matter. The dark matter, taking up over 75 percent of the cluster mass and colored blue in the above image, was inferred by that needed to create the distortion of background galaxies by gravitational lensing. The jumble appears to result from the slow motion collision of at least four smaller galaxy clusters over the past few billion years. The above picture combines optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope with X-ray images from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Abell 2744, dubbed Pandora's cluster, spans over two million light years and can best be seen with a really large telescope toward the constellation of the Sculptor.
说明: 为什么这个星系团会如此的杂乱?远离了均匀分布的地区,Abell 2744串联着星系,星系团的炙热气体所发出的X射线(标示为红色)分布异于暗物质。利用重力透镜效应使得该影像背景星系失真的状况,推论出暗物质(标示为蓝色)在这星系团占有75%的质量。混乱起源自至少四个星系在过去数十亿年来缓慢的碰撞。这张影像一共结合了哈伯太空望远镜(Hubble Space Telescope)与超大望远镜(Very Large Telescope)的光学资料,以及钱卓(Chandra)天文台的X射线影像。 Abell 2744是潘朵拉星系团之一,透过大型望远镜指往玉夫座(Sculptor)可辨识出来,宽达200万光年。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-06-30 16:44 | 显示全部楼层
2011 June 28
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Star Factory Messier 17
Credit: ESO, INAF-VST, OmegaCAM
Acknowledgement: OmegaCen/Astro-WISE/Kapteyn Institute

Explanation: Sculpted by stellar winds and radiation, the star factory known as Messier 17 lies some 5,500 light-years away in the nebula-rich constellation Sagittarius. At that distance, this degree wide field of view spans almost 100 light-years, courtesy of ESO's new VLT Survey Telescope and OmegaCAM. The sharp, false color image includes both optical and infrared data, following faint details of the region's gas and dust clouds against a backdrop of central Milky Way stars. Stellar winds and energetic light from hot, massive stars formed from M17's stock of cosmic gas and dust have slowly carved away at the remaining interstellar material producing the cavernous appearance and undulating shapes. M17 is also known as the Omega Nebula or the Swan Nebula.
说明: 由恒星风和辐射所雕塑出来的M17,位在星云遍布的人马座内,离我们约有5,500光年远。上面这幅使用欧南天文台极大望镜及OmegaCAM相机所拍摄的1度视野影像,依这个距离来估算,大约涵盖了100光年的区域。这幅清晰的假色影像,结合了可见光和红外光的影像数据,以银河系中心的众星为背景,展现了这个天区云气和尘埃的细致结构。 M17内蕴的宇宙尘埃云气所形成之炽热大质量恒星,正发出恒星风和高能辐射,缓慢地消蚀掉残存的星际介质,造成了影像中的空穴状外观和波浪状云气。 M17又称为奥米茄星云(Omega Nebula)或天鹅星云(Swan Nebula)。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-07-01 17:12 | 显示全部楼层
2011 July 1
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
VAR!
Credit: E. Hubble, NASA, ESA, R. Gendler, Z. Levay and the Hubble Heritage Team

Explanation: In the 1920s, examining photographic plates from the Mt. Wilson Observatory's 100 inch telescope, Edwin Hubble determined the distance to the Andromeda Nebula, decisively demonstrating the existence of other galaxies far beyond the Milky Way. His notations are evident on the historic plate image inset at the lower right, shown in context with ground based and Hubble Space Telescope images of the region made nearly 90 years later. By intercomparing different plates, Hubble searched for novae, stars which underwent a sudden increase in brightness. He found several on this plate and marked them with an "N". Later, discovering that the one near the upper right corner (marked by lines) was actually a type of variable star known as a cepheid, he crossed out the "N" and wrote "VAR!". Thanks to the work of Harvard astronomer Henrietta Leavitt, cepheids, regularly varying pulsating stars, could be used as standard candle distance indicators. Identifying such a star allowed Hubble to show that Andromeda was not a small cluster of stars and gas within our own galaxy, but a large galaxy in its own right at a substantial distance from the Milky Way. Hubble's discovery is responsible for establishing our modern concept of a Universe filled with galaxies.
说明: 1920年代,哈伯计算加州威尔森100英吋天文台所拍摄的影像,估算出仙女座大星系的距离,确认这些星系其实距离我们银河系十分遥远。哈伯在这张著名的盘面影像上标记着,可见该区域在地面拍摄的影像与90年后哈伯太空望远镜的影像。哈伯利用不同阶段的影像中,找到骤然增加亮度的新星,并且在影像中以N标示。后来,研究其中一个位在核心右上角的亮星(以线段表示),事实上是一颗已知的造父变星,因此哈伯在影像中删除了N而改写成「VAR!」。感谢哈佛天文学家勒维特(Henrietta Leavitt)确立了造父变星的规律波霎可用来做为标准测距之用。这样的技术让哈伯用来量测仙女座大星系,确认这不是我们银河系的星云星团,而是一个真真实实的星系,并且是距离我们银河系十分遥远。哈伯的发现让我们知道这个宇宙里充满了星系。
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发表于 2011-07-02 16:21 | 显示全部楼层
好看 没的说。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-07-02 23:32 | 显示全部楼层
2011 July 2
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Moon and Venus at Dawn
Credit: Image Credit & Copyright: Tunç Tezel (TWAN)

Explanation: Brilliant Venus and a thin crescent Moon stood together above the eastern horizon just before sunrise on June 30. The lovely celestial pairing is captured in this colorful twilight skyview overlooking a reservoir near Izmir, Turkey. For some, the close conjunction could be viewed as a daylight occultation. While Venus is nearing the end of its latest performance as planet Earth's morning star, the old lunar cresent, about 24 hours from its New Moon phase, was also bidding farewell for now to the dawn. In fact, for the next two nights a young Moon can be spotted just after sunset. Look for a thin sunlit sliver close to the western horizon, not far from bright planet Mercury.
说明: 6月30日太阳升起之前,金星与眉月一并出现在东方的地平面上。俯瞰土耳其伊兹密尔(Izmir)附近水库,在缤纷暮光前捕捉下这对可爱的天体。有些更靠近的人,可以看到这次的月掩金星。金星正结束最近状态而成为地球晨星,月亮则是刚脱离新月仅仅24小时,同时告别现在迎向日出。事实上,未来两天月亮都会在日落后出现,在西方地平面的太阳余晖中,不远处就能看见水星。
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-07-03 21:57 | 显示全部楼层
2011 July 3
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
Alpha Centauri: The Closest Star System
Image Credit: 1-Meter Schmidt Telescope, ESO

Explanation: The closest star system to the Sun is the Alpha Centauri system. Of the three stars in the system, the dimmest -- called Proxima Centauri -- is actually the nearest star. The bright stars Alpha Centauri A and B form a close binary as they are separated by only 23 times the Earth- Sun distance - slightly greater than the distance between Uranus and the Sun. In the above picture, the brightness of the stars overwhelm the photograph causing an illusion of great size, even though the stars are really just small points of light. The Alpha Centauri system is not visible in much of the northern hemisphere. Alpha Centauri A, also known as Rigil Kentaurus, is the brightest star in the constellation of Centaurus and is the fourth brightest star in the night sky. Sirius is the brightest even thought it is more than twice as far away. By an exciting coincidence, Alpha Centauri A is the same type of star as our Sun, causing many to speculate that it might contain planets that harbor life.
说明: 离太阳最近的邻居是半人马座α恒星系统(Alpha Centauri;半人马座阿尔法)。在这个三合星系统中,离太阳最近的是最暗的比邻星(Proxima Centauri)。而明亮的半人马座阿尔法A与B,是密近双星,间距只有地球和太阳距离的23倍,只比天王星和太阳的距离要大上一些。在上面照片中,半人马座阿尔发A与B非常明亮,导致照片过度曝光,让它们看起来很大颗,实际上,它们只是两个小光点。而在北半球,只有较靠赤道的地区才能见到半人马座阿尔发恒星系统。三合星中最亮的是半人马座阿尔发A,它又名为南门二(Rigil Kentaurus),除了是半人马座最亮星之外,也是地球夜空中的第四亮星。天狼星则拥有最亮星的头衔,纵然它的距离是南门二两倍之多。很巧的是,南门二是和我们太阳同型的恒星,因此很多人猜测它可能也拥有孕育着生命的行星。
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CDer:000264701
发表于 2011-07-03 22:27 | 显示全部楼层
非常漂亮
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CDer:000024255
 楼主| 发表于 2011-07-05 15:30 | 显示全部楼层
2011 July 4
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version available.
A Triangular Shadow of a Large Volcano
Image Credit & Copyright: Juan Carlos Casado (TWAN)

Explanation: Why does the shadow of this volcano look like a triangle? The Mount Teide volcano itself does not have the strictly pyramidal shape that its geometric shadow might suggest. The triangle shadow phenomena is not unique to the Mt. Teide, though, and is commonly seen from the tops of other large mountains and volcanoes. A key reason for the strange dark shape is that the observer is looking down the long corridor of a sunset (or sunrise) shadow that extends to the horizon. Even if the huge volcano was a perfect cube and the resulting shadow was a long rectangular box, that box would appear to taper off at its top as its shadow extended far into the distance, just as parallel train tracks do. The above spectacular image shows Pico Viejo crater in the foreground, located on Tenerife in the Canary Islands of Spain. The nearly full moon is seen nearby shortly after its total lunar eclipse last month.
说明: 这火山的影子怎么看起来是三角形呢?泰德火山地貌本身并非是影子所呈现的精确金字塔形状,这样的三角形影子并非是泰德火山专属,事实是站立于巨峰或火山的峰顶时,经常可见这样的现象。主要的因素是当观测者俯视那日落(或日出)的光线投影在遥远的地平面处。即使巨大的火山是个完美的立方体,影子也会是长方形,并且当峰顶的影子投射到遥远地平面处时,逐渐变成锥形,就如同是平行铁轨在遥远地平面一样。这张壮观影像前景是西班牙加那利群岛的特内里费岛的Pico Viejo火山,近满月的月亮则是在上个月月全食过后不久所拍摄的。
最具影响力军事论坛-超级大本营军事论坛欢迎你!超然物外,有容乃大。
CDer:000354778
发表于 2011-07-06 04:48 | 显示全部楼层
jadiyd 发表于 2011-7-5 15:30
2011 July 4
See Explanation. Clicking on the picture will download the highest resolution version a ...

这不是7月5日的么?7月4日的是这个来着:

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap110704.html
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